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Full text of "Letters written by a Turkish spy, who lived five and forty years undiscovered at Paris: giving an impartial account to the Divan at Constantinople, of the most remarkable transactions of Europe: and discovering several intrigues and secrets of the Christian courts (especially of that of France). Continued from the year 1637, to the year 1682"

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Duke University 

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P A R IS: 


-An Impartial Account to the Divan at Coaftantl- 
nople, of the moft remarkable Tranfactions of 
Europe : And difcovering feveral Intrigues and 
Secrets of the Chriftian Courts (efpecially of that 
of France). Continued from the Year 1642, to 
the Year 1682. 

Written originally in Arab re k, tranflated into Ita- 
lian, and from thence into English, by the 
Tranflator of the Firft Volume. 



Printed for A. Wild e, ]. Brotherton and Se well, 
C. Bat hurst, E.Ballard, W. Strahan, J and 
F. Rivingtqn, W. Johnston, S. Crow der, E.and 
C.Dilly, R. Bald win, C.Corbet t, J. Wilkie, 
S. Bladon, W. Harris, B. Collins, and W. 
Flexney. MDCCLXX. 

T O T H E 


AS fuperfluous as Prefaces feem, 
yet there is one thing which 
makes it, in a manner, neceflary to pre* 
fix a few lines to this Volume, in regard 
there is an occafion given by the objec- 
tions fome Gentlemen have been lately 
pleaied to make againft the ftyle of the 
Englifh tranflation. Thefe perfons, hav- 
ing, by a very coftly inquifitivenef>, 
found and procured the Italian co- 
py of the Letters, and compared 
A 2 them 

To the READER. 

them with the Englifh, pick many 
faults with the latter, which they 
would fain improve to the lefTening the 
reputation of the Turkifh Spy, or at 
leaft to the heightening of their own 
•characters as wits and criticks, matters 
of languages, and the grand patentees 
of human fenfe. 

In the firft place they fay the Italian 
tranflation keeps clofe to the original 
Arabick; whereas the Englifh abounds 
too much with Angliciftns, which 
are not fufficient to exprefs the author's 
primitive fenfe, 

How impoffible a thing it is to 
«pleafe all people in undertakings of 
this nature ! Formerly they were of- 
fended that fo many Turkifh and Ara- 
bick words were left untranflated. 
And, that being anfwered in the Pre- 
face to the Fourth Volume, they have 
now formed new arguments out of 
that very anfwer, to aflault us on the 
contrary fide, and tax us with being 
too vernacular. It is true, the letters 


To the READER. 

they have fent to the Bookfeller, on 
this account, are not fubfcribed at 
length : Yet, by accident, one of the 
Gentlemen's hand- writing is known. 
And though we acknowledge him to 
be an ingenious perfon, and a man 
of learning ; yet I believe he would 
be unwilling his letter mould here 
be expofed in print (or the original 
fliewed to fome that know him, and, 
perhaps, may claim an equal rank 
among the criticks.) 

But to come to the purpofe ; I 
have often heard tranflations blamed 
for keeping too clofe to the original 
phrafe j but never any, before this,, 
for a negligence that is abfolutely ne- 
ceffary to retain the fenfe of a foreign 
author. All the world knows there 
is a vaft difference between Arabick 
and the languages of Europe ; and, 
if the Italian tranflator was more ex- 
ad: in forming his words up to a 
near imitation of the Eaftern propri- 
eties of fpeech, no doubt but impar- 
tial men will rather cenfure it as a 
A 3 fault, 

& u o ,-J u \j 


To the READER. 

fault, than cry it up for an excel- 
lency ; fince nothing founds well in 
any language, which is not deliver- 
ed in the natural idiom. Every thing 
ought to be written in as familiar a 
ftyle as we difcourfe ; efpecially let- 
ters, which are but a proxy-method 
of converting at a diftance. And he 
that tranflates, out of one language 
into another, ought to aim chiefly at 
this, that he be fure to retain the 
original fenfe, and render it fmooth 
and eafy to the reader. The flowers 
of Arabia and Italy, when once trans- 
planted to our barren Englifh foil, 
lofe their virtue and beauty, till they 
are naturalifed : What then muft we 
expéófc from their weeds ? Doubt- 
lefs, there are fome peculiarities in all 
languages ; and to tranflate verbatim 
from fo remote a tongue would found 
as harfh as French does in an English- 
man's mouth, when he pronounces it 
as it is written. 

What I have more to fay is, that, 
as this Volume contains a hiftory of 


To the R E A D E R. 

things tranfacied within the memory 
of moft men now living, fo the two 
fucceeding Tomes fall down lower and 
nearer to the prefent times :; Giving 
an account of events whereof many- 
have been eye-witneffes, and where- 
in not a few have had a perfonal 
fhare, either by way of action, or fuf- 
fering lofs or damage ; which muft 
needs afford delight to thinking men, 
fince there is nothing more agreeable 
to mortals than to reflect on the for- 
mer paffages of their lives, according 
to that of the poet : 

Hasc olim meminiffe juvabif. 

Befides, for the farther encourage- 
ment of the candid reader, he may 
affure himfelf, that, towards the con- 
clufion of the laft Volume, he will meet 
with feveral fecrets between the French 
and Turkifh Courts, which will dis- 
cover the true fource of the prefent war 
between the Emperor of Germany and 
the Grand Signior, and give a glimpfe 
of the private machinations and fprings 
A 4 which 

To the R E A D E R. 

which have put all Europe into the 
hurly-burly it is now in. 

I have but this more to fay, that we 
hope to be more fpeedy in publishing the 
remainder of thefe Letters, than we 
have hitherto been in the former Vo- 

Reader, adieu* 

A TA- 



LETTERS and Matters 
contained in* this Volume. 

V OL. VI. 
B G OK I. 


MAhmut the Arabian, at Paris, to Dgnet 
Oglou, his friend, at Conftantmople, 

Page i 
He relates the errors he committed^ in point of 
addrefs and carriage^ vjhen he jìrjì came tq 
Paris \ 

A 5 II. To 


IL To the Reis Effendi, Principal Secretary of 
the Ottoman Empire, j 

Of a fellow that dogged him up and doivn the 
Jireets of Paris -, and his apprehenfions there- 

III. To Abdel Melee Muli Omar, Prefident of 
the College of Sciences at Fez, 10 

He complains of his frequent fadnefs> on the ac- 
count of ins - employment . 

IV. To the Kaimacham, 13 
Of the Quakers in Holland^ England, Germany^ 

and other parts of Europe, 

V. To the fame, 16 
Of the peace concluded between France and Spain, 

Of the match between the King of France and 
the Spanijh Infanta. Of the Duke of Lor- 
rain 1 releafe, and of the Prince of Cont'Cs re- 

VI. Hemet, Reis Effendi, Principal Secretary of 
the Ottoman Empire, 19 

He congratulates his accefjion to that dignity. Of 
the death of the King of Sweden and the Duke 
of Orleans. 

VII. To Dgnet Oglou, 23 
He difcourfes again/I the little fuper fUtlons of the 

Mahometans. Of Mofes and the Jews in 


VIII To the Kaimacham, 28 

Of the Prince of Condi s reception and entertain- 


The T A B L E. 

mint at the French Court. Some paffages of hi* 

IX. To the fame, 30 
Of King Charles the Second's ref oration to the 


X. To Mehemet, an exiled Eunuch, at Grand 
Cairo in Egypt, 33 

He breaks forth into melancholy excurfions. 

XI. To Hamet, Reis Effendi, Principal Secre- 
tary of the Ottoman Empire, 36 

He relates fome pajjages of Henry IV s life. 

XII. To Muftapha, Berber Aga, 39 
Of the extraordinary magnificence at the new-mar- 
ried King and Queen's entry into Paris. 

XIII. To Dgnet Oglou, 41 
Of an earthquake at Paris. 

XIV. To Hamet, Reis Effendi, Principal Secre- 
tary of the Ottoman Empire, 43 

Obfervaiions on the reign of Lewis XIII. 

XV. To Mahummed in the Defart, 47 
Of the earthquake at Paris y and other parts of 


L E T T E R • I. 


O the Venerable Mufti, 5 1 

Of Cardinal Mazarine's death» Some re- 
mark on his life. 

IT, To 


II. To the Vizir Azem at the Porte, 54. 
Farther remarks on Cardinal Mazarine. 

III. To Perieli Hali, his brother, Mafler of the 
Cuftoms at Conftantinople, 55 

Of his coufin Ifouf's refidence at AJìracan. A cha~ 
racier of the Mufcovites. 

IV. To Orcham Cabet, Student in the Scien- 
ces, and Penfioner to the Sultan, 58 

He congratulates his converfion to the Mahometan 

V. To the Mufti, 59 
Of the King of France's pozver to cure the Kiiigs 


VI. To Mirmadolin, Santone of the Vale or 
Sidon, 62 

He applauds the happy life of a Santone. 

VII. To Dgnet Oglou, 65 
Of Painters. A jiory cf Martin Heemfkirk. Ano- 
ther of Giotto. 

VJII. To Lubano Abufai Saad, an Egyptian 
Knight, 70 

Of the Dauphins birth. 

IX. To Cara Hali, Phyfician to the Grand Signiòr, 

Of bardi nefs, indifference^ and refgnation. 

X. To the fame, 76 
Of plays y and an odd accident that happened at 

one^ in the pre feme of the King and the whole 

XI. To 


XL To Dgnet Oglou, 81 

He complains of the JJanders cajl on him by f&me 
at the Seraglio. 

XII. To Abraham Eli, Zeid, Hadgi, Preacher to 
the Seraglio, 83 

Of the wicked lives- of Priejis and Monks, 

XIII. To the Chiaus Bafla, 89 
Of the French King's conduci and government. 

XIV. To the fame, 93 
More on the fame fubjetf. Of an extraordina~ 

ry tournament, ar caroufal, at the French 

XV. To ZeidiAlamanzi, a merchant at Venice, 96 
He applauds his fmcerity in embracing the Muf- 

fuhnan faith. 

XVI. To the Kaimacham, ICO 
Of the attempts made on the lives of the Duke and 

Duchefs of Crequi. 

XVII. To JVfohammed, the illuftrious Eremite of 
Mount X^riel in Arabia, 102 

Of the contradiclions and uncertainty of ancient re* 
cords, iffc. 

XVIII. To ^ Hafnadar-Baffi, Chief Treafurer 
to his Highnefs, 105 

Of the birth and death of Madame of France. Of 
the peace concluded between France and Spain* 
He refecls on the Englifo J or delivering up Dun- 
kirk to the French. Of the marriage between 
the King of England and the Infanta of Portugal. 

XIX. To 


XIX. To the Kaimacham, 108 
He relates a Jirange pajfage that happened to him 

in vifiting a Calabria?! traveller, profeffmg aftro- 
hgy and phyfick. 

XX. To the Captain Balla, 112 
Of a wonderful man taken up on the coajis of 

North Holland. 

XXI. To Nathan Ben Saddi, a Jew, at Vienna, 

He endeavours to convince him that Ifmael was 
heir ff the promifes made to Abraham, as being 
the fir Ji -born Jon : With fome recriminations on 
tht race of Ifaac. 

XXII. To the fame, 118 

He dijecurfes concerning the origin of Nobility a fid 
Grandeur among men. 

XXIII. To Codarafrad Ceik, a Man of the 
Law, 123 

Of a man that was executed at Paris, for ajjert- 
ing that he was the Son of God. 


iO Solyman, his coufin, atChalcedon, 125 

He applauds his removing from place to place, 
and advifes him to travel farther and farther 
in the world, or at Uaji to vifit his coufin at 

II. To 


II. To Pefteli Hali, his brother, Matter of the 

Cuftoms at Conftantinople, 128 

Of the wars and revolutions in Indojian ; with 
fome remarks on the different policy of Eafter n 

III. To Ufeph, Baffa, 131 
Of the converfion of the Duke of Mecklenburgh 

to the Roman faith. Of the magnificent entry 
the Swifs Ambaffadors ?nade into Paris. 

IV. To Harriet,. Reis Effendi, Principal Secreta- 
ry of the Ottoman Empire, 133 

Of the King of France' 's amours. A pleafant Jlory 
of his Confeffor. 

V. To Pefteli Hali, his brother, Mafter of the 
Grand Signior's Cuftoms at Conftantinople, 

Of Mahmut's inclination to travel ; his particu- 
lar fancy for Indojian : With a defcriptio?i of 
the pie a fur e s he Jhould take in paffing t hit her. 

VI. To Hamet, Reis Effendi, Principal Secretary 
of the Ottoman Empire, 140 

Of the death of the Duchefs of Savoy, and Ca- 
rolus Jofephus, brother to the German Empe- 
ror. A general character of Germany, France, 
Spain, England, Holland, and ether parts of 

VII. To Kerker Haffan, Baffa, 144 
He acquaints him how he had been affafftnated one 

night in the ftreets> as he was returning to 



his lodgings. Of his removal thereupon io ano- 
ther part of the city* 

VIII. To Nathan Ben Saddi, a Jew, at Vienna, 

J 49 

He informs him of the fame accident, referring 
him for farther injiruclions to Eliachim^ who 
would be floor tly at Vienna. 

IX. To Zeidi Alamanzi, a Merchant, at Venice, 

He forbids him to fend any letters to Paris, till 
he has received frcjh orders from the Porte. 

X. ToMurat, BafTa, 153 
He complains for want of timely intelligence from 

the Mini/ter s of the Porte. Of the victories 
and fucceffes of the Ottomans in Hungary. Of 
Count Trozzi's arrival at Paris, in quality of 
Ambafjador from the Emperor, 

XI. To Ifouf, his kinfman, a Merchant, at Af- 
tracan, 156 

A characler of Spain, 

XII. To Afis, BafTa, 157 
Of the general coiifiernation in Europe, upon the 

news of the Grand Signior's advances into Hun- 
gary. Of Cardinal Chi fi 5 arrival at Paris 
in quality of Legate de Latere from the Pope, 

XIII. To Hamet, Reis Effendi, Principal Se- 
cretary of the Ottoman Empire, 159 

He give 1 him a characler of Spain, different from 
that he fint his coufm Ifouf, 

XIV. To 

The TAB L E. 

XIV. To Mufu Abu'l Yahyan, Profeflbr of Phi- 
lofophy at Fez, 162 

He dijcourfes of the various languages of Europe. A 
Jiory of a GermanAmbaffador at the French Court* 

XV. To Oiman Adrooneth, Aftrologer to the 
Sultan, at Adrianople, 165 

Of a comet appearing in the firmament. From whence 
he takts occafion to difcourfe about the natuie of 

XVI. To Hamet, Reis Effendi, Principal Secre- 
tary of the Ottoman Empire, 167 

He informs him of the peace made between the Pope 
and the King of France, after the affronts put upon 
the French Ambaffador at Rome, Of the French 
King's defign in Africa. 

XVII. ToAbdel Melee Muli Omar, Prefident of 
the College of Sciences at Fez, 170 

He complains that true f ci enee is not to be found, un- 
lefs among the Brami ns of India. 

XVIII. To Mirmadolin, Santone of the Vale of 
Sidon, 173 

He afferts that men are partakers of the divine na- 
ture. A digrrfftm concerning the ancient religion 
of the Gentiles. 

XIX. To the fame, 175 
Afceptical difcourje after the manner of an Epicurean- 


XX. To Ifouf, his coufin, a Merchant, at Af- 
tracan, 177 



Mahmut complains of his v.neafinefs in Paris, and 
exprejfès his emulation of the Arabs and Tartars. 

XXI. To Harriet, Reis Effendi, Principal Secre- 
tary to the Ottoman Empire, 180 

Remarks on the Marjhal de Tur enne, with a cha- 
r after of that Prince. 

XXII. To OrchanCabet, Studentof the Sciences* 
and Peniioner to the Grand Signior, i&j 

Of a paper ofvcrfes which the King of France found 
one morning on his table. Of Anna Maria de 
Skurman, the learned maid of Saxony, 

XXIII. To the Captain Baffa, 184. 
Of a notable vici or y obtained by the Englifl), under 

the command of the Duke of Fork, in a fea~ 
fight zvith the Dutch. Of the King of France's 
dejign to unite both feas, by cutting a canal 
through part of his kingdom* 





O Achmet Beig, 2 SS 

Of the death of Philip IV > King ef Spain , and 
the Duke of Vendofme, 

II. To William Vofpel, a Reclufe of Auftria, 

Mahmut endeavours to reclaim him from bigotry* 

III. To Nathan Ben Saddi, a Jew, at Vienna, 

J 95 
He refi ft es on the Mifna and Talmud of the Jews : 

Rehearfing brief y feveral ridiculous Jiories out 

of the latter. Of a fort of Jews in North 

Jfia different from the refi of that lineage , in 

their language^ laws, ana religion. 

IV. To the fame, 198 
He gives him a more particular account of thefe 

Jews, their cu/loms, and manner of life. 

V. To Mohammed, Hadgi, Dervich, Eremite of 
Mount Uriel, in Arabia the Happy, 202 

He tells him he is in doubt of his future fate : 
However , he afferts, that it is good to meditati 
on the loft things. 

VI. To 

The TABL F. 

VI. To the Kaimacham, 205 
Of Mirammud, the fon of the Xenpb of Sa- 
lens being taken prifoner by the French, Hit- 

character and entertainment at the Court. 

VII. To Hamed Muladdin, Xeriph of Salee, 

He acquaints him with the firr.e thing, and ad,' 
vifes him to. fend fpw'y Ambaffùàòfs to the 
Court of France y in order to bjs foil's redemp- 

VIII. To Pefteli Hali, his brother, Mafter of 
the Cuftoms at Conftantinopie, 209 

Jio informs him of the treachery of Sclyman, his 
coufin, in employing fme Armenian Merchants 
at Paris to pry into Mahmufs fecrets. 

IX. To Dgnet Oglou, 210 
More on the fame fubjecl., 

X. To Harriet, Reis Effendi, Principal Secretary 

of the Ottoman Empire, 214 

Of the plague in London, and in other parts of 
England. Of the death of the ghie en- Mother 
of France, and of the Prince of Conti, 

XI. To Nathan Ben Saddi, a Jew, at Vienna,, 


He reproaches him with bigotry in believing Sab- 

lati Sevi, the pretended MrJJias of Smyrna, &c. 

to be the true Redeemer of Ifrael. Ajhort hiflwy 

of Sabbati Sevi's life, 

XII. To 


XII. To the Kaimacham, 223 

An account of the Jews extravagancies on the ap- 
pearing of Sabbati Sevi, as their Mejfias. 
Strange reports of the ten tribes that were 
carried away captive by Salmanaffar King of 

MIL ToMurat, BaiTa, 222 

Of a war between the French and the Englijh. Of 
a marriage between the Emperor of Germany and 
the Infanta of Spain. 

XIV. To Pefteli Hali, his brother, Mafter of the 
Cuftoms, and Superintendamof theArfenal at 
Conftantinople, 225 

He congratulates his new advancement : Relates the 
blovAng up of Rezan*, a city in Ruffa , and de- 
fcants on the Day of Doom. 

XV. To Ufeph, BafTa, 229 
Of the continuance of the plague in England. Of the 

fire at London. 

XVI. To Cara Hali, Phyfician to the Grand 
Signior, . 231 

He complains that our knowledge of a future fiate 
is very uncertain. 

XVII. To Kerker HafTan, BafTa, 235 
He rejoices to hear that he is to be removed from 

Paris to a country life, fomewhere in Afta, 



XVIII. To Ifouf, his kinfman, a Merchant, at 

Aftracan, 240 

He gives him a characler of his coufin Sofyman, 

and bids him beware of him, if he Jhould corns 

to Aftraxan* 





i -..--.- — — . - — 



' Mah mu t, the Arabian at Paris, to Dgnet 
Oglou, his Friend, at Conftantinople. 

IT makes me fmile fometimes, when' I reflect 
how often I was put to it for an addrefs iuitable 
to the manners of the Nazarenes, and the par- 
ticular mode of Paris, when I nrft arrived at this 
city : For, thou kncweft, we had other employ^, 
ments, than to learn fafhions and conge's at Paler- 
mo. The mind of a (lave is dejected, under the cir- 
cumftances of his captivity ; io that he has not lei* 
fure to regard any thing, but how to accomplim hi» 
daily tafk, and to pleafe his patron. All his ftudy 
and care is bent upon this, and there is no room left 
for generous thoughts ; neither has he means or 
courage to venture on projects, or improve the pre» 
fent occurrences, in order to his future happinefs. 
Vol. VI. B Na^ 


Nay, he hardly dares think of being happy again. 
This was my cafe, and, I believe, it was not much 
better with thee. 

Yet, notwithstanding all the rigorous ufage I had, 
the bailinadoes, kicks, bruifes, cuts, and wounds, 
I received from the hands of that barbarous Giafer, 
my mailer, which made me fometimes incapable of 
doing him any fervice by day, or of taking any reft 
myfelf by night, I was refolved to find fome fpare 
time for books. I rofe early, and went late to fleep ; 
neglecting no moment, wherein I could apply my- 
felf to fludy. The acquaintance I had with that 
Sicilian carpenter, our friend, was of lingular ad- 
vantage to me in this kind ; for, thou mayeit re- 
member, he was well ftocked with many ancient 
and learned treati fes. He furnifhed me with Plu- 
tarch, Polybius, Strabo, Pliny, and other hiftories : 
All which, and many more, I devoured with gree- 
dinefs ; for I had a ftrong appetite to knowledge. 
And, after my redemption, I pafTed away fome time 
in the academies, where I learned the knotty tricks 
of logick, how to fplit moods and figures, and 
chain one impertinent fyllogifm to the tail of ano- 
ther to eternity. I alfo ran through a courfe of phi- 
loibphy and other fciences. Neither was I altoge- 
ther ignorant of men : For the reading of hiftories 
iits a man the better to make practical experiments 
in the affairs of the world. To which alfo philo- 
fophy is not a little helpful in directing our obfer- 
vations on the various tempers of people, mens per- 
fonal difpofitions and fingularities, with the hu- 
mours and cuitoms peculiar to this or that nation. 
For thefe things depend many times on the diffe- 
rence of the climate, the nature of the foil, the qua- 
lities of the air, and the manner of their diet. 

But neither hiftory, logick, nor philolbphy, were 
able to efface the impreffions of my early years, 
or unteach me the manners in which I had been 
educated from my infancy. I brought Arabia and 
Conltantinople along with me even to Paris. And, 
becaufe I had not been ufed to difTemble the pro- 



feflion and carriage of a Muffulman, during my 
thraldom in Sicily, I was at a lofs in my deport- 
ment when I came firfl hither. 

How often have I been like to difcover myfelf by 
pronouncing the facred Bifmillah, either when I fat 
down to eat, or put a glafs of water to my lips • or 
when I began any other action of importance ! So, 
likewife in uttering the Handillah, after a repair, 
or when any thing happened which prompted me to 
praife God. 

When I met any of my acquaintance in the ftreets^ 
I was apt to forget I had a hat on ; and, inftead cf 
putting off that, according to the fafhion of the 
Franks, I laid my hand on my breafb, and feme- 
times bowed fo low, that my hat fell off from my 
bead before I was fenfible of my error. 

If I had occafion to addrefs myfelf to a perfon of 
quality, I was ready to take up the bottom of his 
cloak, gown, or robe, and to kifs it in token of 
reverence, as the cuftom is in the Ezii when v/e 
falute the Grandees. Nay, fometimes, I could not 
forbear falling on my knee, or proftrate on the 
ground before Cardinal Richlieu and thofe of his 
high dignity. All which, neverthelefs, paffed only 
for clowniihnefs, and want of courtly education, 
which teaches the nice punctilio's of addrefs. They 
took me for a kind of Moldavian ruftick, without 
any farther jealoufy. Or, pei haps, they fmiled at 
al-J this, as fome fmgular caprice or humour, like 
that of the philofopher Paficles, who, going to fa- 
lute a great Captain, and the ceremony of thofe 
times requiring him to touch the Captain's knee, he 
laid his hand on his genitals ; at which the Captili 11 
being affronted, and thruftlng his hand away vith 
fcornful words, * What !' fays the philofopher, 
' does not that part belong to you, as well as your 
* knees ?' It often diverts my melancholy to con- 
fider how many errors of this kind I have commit- 
ted, not through ignorance or any Cynical humour, 
but only in pure overfish t and forge tfulnefs. 

B 2 I; 


It was a long time e're I could frame my fingers 
to handle a knife and fork at meals, as is the uni- 
verial cuftomin thefe Weitern parts : whereas, thou 
knoweif, we make ufe of no other instruments in 
eating, but our fingers and teeth. Whence it was 
that I could not iometimes forbear thrufting my 
hand into a whole dilli of meat ; which is counted a 
great indecency in France. And after I was recon- 
ciled to thofe nicer inftxuments of voluptuoufnefs, 
lb as to carve my meat à-la-mode ; yet, when I once 
had it en my own plate, I laid afide thofe tools as 
ufelefs and tore it afunder with my fingers and teeth, 
reeding à la Turcefque, as the French call it ; that 
is, like a Muflulman. 

Neverthelefs, nobody fufpecied me ; but all thefe 
mifcarriages palled for Moldavian barbarifms, the 
favage cuitoms of that my fuppofed country. I tell 
thee that, though the manner of eating among the 
French fecms to have fomething more of neatnefs 
and delicacy in it, yet it appears full of foftnefs 
and luxury, and I cannot in reafon prefer it to the 
more natural and fimple method of diet ufed in the 
Eaft. Neither would the Franks themfelves con- 
demn us for favages in this point, as they commonly 
tio, did they but confider, that this negligence very 
well -becomes men of the fword ; and that, in their 
campaigns, their own Generals are ambitious to ap- 
pear carelefs in every thing relating to their body. 

Doubtlefs, the ancient Romans, who brought the 
irreatefl part of the world under their power, fhun- 
ned all finenefles in diet and apparel, till fuch time 
2s their manners were debauched, and their empire 
in its decline. Our annals record, that, when Sul- 
tan Selim lay down with his army before a certain 
place, and the Governor of the town fent Commif- 
iioners to treat with him about a furrender, they 
found him at dinner, which confuted only of two 
©r three onions, a little fait and bread. 

Hiitories alfo relate of the faithful Omar, fticcef- 
for at the Prophet, that, when he was with his army 
wot far from Jerusalem, the Nazarene Prince who 




overned that city font a fpy into the hoft of the 
luiTuimans, toobferve their discipline, and bring 
him a lively character of their General. The fpy 
went according to his mailer's orders, and, having 
tarried fome time in the Arabian camp, returned 
again, and thus fpoke to the Governor : 

44 It will be needlefs to recount every thing I ob- 
" ferved amons; thefe foldiers ; fince by what I ftiall 
44 fay of their Leader thou mayeft comprehend the 
" manners of them all : For they obey him, and 
4i follow his example in every thing, with exquifite 
44 filence and modefty. I faw Omar, their Prince, 
•f at the head cf his army, fitting on a camel, bis 
44 face tawny, and fcorched by the fun, in a \ r ^(t of 
44 Perfian cotton, girded about with a belt of lea- 
44 ther, at which hung a fcymetar and dagger, with 
44 a knapfack tied behind him like the meaneii fol- 
M dier. I faw him take out from thence hard cruft.s 
44 of bread, fhaking oft the hufks cf millet which 
44 ftuck to them ; and faying, 4 In the name cf God,' 
44 eat heartily of the fame. Then he drank water 
44 out of a leathern bottle hanging by his fide, and 
44 when he had done, he faid, ' Praife be to God, ? 
* 4 AH his army made their repaft at the fame time, 
44 and in the fame manner, with admirable tempe- 
44 ranee, and fuch an order and modefty, as I never 
44 faw before, neither can I exprefs." 

When the Prince heard this, he flood ftill a eon- 
fiderabie time, mufing as one aftonifhed. Then, 
turning to the feniors and chiefs cf the people who 
were prefent, he faid, " It is necefTary that we fur* 
44 render our city to thefe people ; for they have the 
44 fmiles of Heaven. Their Prophet and their law 
44 oblige them to temperance, frugality, obedience, 
44 and a modeft deportment. Thefe virtues are cer- 
44 tain fteps to victory and empire. Befides, I have 
44 received a tradition from my anceltors, that a 
44 people fhall come out of Arabia, with a new law 
44 and religion, which fhall abclifh all that went be- 
44 fore it. They fhall fubdue Paleftine and Egypt, 
B 2 " and. 


" and /hall build mofques, wherein their prayers 
44 ihall found like the humming of bees. Their em- 
44 pire fhn.ll extend from Eait to Weft, and to the 
44 extremities of the earth. This is what I have 
rued from my forefathers, and which, I be- 
44 lieve, is now coming to pais. Therefore it will 
44 be in vain to .e men ; for they are invin- 

44 cible by a decree from above." 

Thofe that were about him did not approve the 
ccunfel of this wife Nazarene. However, he fent 
to Omar, and obtained favour for himfelf and his 

Thou wilt fay I am got wide of the mark of my 
. icourfe, which related to my fe If, and not to 
any of the primitive Caliphs : But it is impoiTible to 
reftrain our thoughts from roving. Some fay they 
hang together like the links of a chain ; and that, 
one idea being faftened to another in our memory, 
we mufter them in rank and file, according to their 
proper order, when we think, or make reflections : 
God knows how it is. This I am iure of, that, 
when I write to my I itudy not to make an 

ate fpeech of it, as if I were penning an ora- 
tion ; but, purfuing my firft intention at random, I 
run on, letting one thought and word beget another. 

But I was telling thee how great a bungler I was 
at firft, in all the ceremonies and manners of the 
Franks, which differ from thofe of the E aft. I was 
as much to feek in my addrefs, as an als would be 
ly on a lute, according to the Roman proverb ; 
yet time and practice rendered all thefe things fami- 
liar and eafy. Now, methinks, I am a thorough- 
paced Nazarene, as to my exterior. I go to the 
: the temples, with as much feeming for- 
mality as the Chriftians, whilft, God knows, my 
heart is fomewhere elfe : All my actions are out of 
their natural byafs, fo long as I am abfent from the 
fociety of True Believers. 

In a word, I am forced to imitate the fox, which 
creature, when it is invironed with the huntfmen 



and dogs, counterfeits a barking like the latter, and 
fo paifeo undifcovered for Gne of their company. 

P.rls, 3d of the 9th Moon, 
of the Year 1659. 


To the Reis Effendi, or Principal Secretary 
of the Ottoman Empire. 

I AM at this time pofTeiTed with mere apprehen- 
fions and jealouiies, than an old Infidel ufurer. 
My lodging affects me with greater melancholy 
than would a prifon. And my uneaiinefs is the fame- 
when I go out of doors. Every body that meet* 
me looks either as my accufer or my Judge : And 
fome appear as terrible as executioners. By day, 
my imagination torments me like a fury, and b/ 
night I am affrighted with melancholy vifions. I 
dream of nothing but racks, wheels, laws, gibbets, 
and fuch-like instruments of human cruelty. Or, 
that I am in fome dark dungeon, condemned to 
more unfufterable tortures, by order of the State ; 
with Cardinal Mazarine fitting by me, like a Spa- 
nifh inquifitor, and, in the moil tyrannical manner, 
threatening me with pains to which the damned 
themfelves are wholly ftrangers, if I will not con- 
fer what I am, and reveal the fecrets with which I 
am intrufted. 

The occafion of thefe terrors which harrafs ms 
night and day is this : I have, for four or five days 
together, found myfelf dogged up and down Paris, 
by a man whofe face I never faw before in my life. 
Let me go where I will, he is always at fome dis- 
tance from me : If I ftand ftill, fo does he : Or, if 
I turn back, he is quickly at my heels. I have en- 
deavoured, by all the prudent methods I could take, 
to drop him in the crowd of people, or in the 
B 4 churches ; 


churches : But all in vain; forftill I encounter witft. 
the fame face. He purfues me like my fhadow. 
Neither coach nor boat, land or water, houfe or al- 
ley, can refcue me from this fellow's eyes, who is- 
more quick-fighted than Argus, and nimbler than 
Mercury. He is very cunning alfo in this bufinefs, 
and as dextrous as a juggler; conveying himfelf 
when he pleafes out of my light ; yet, prelently af- 
ter, he is in view again. And, if I chance to lofe 
him in the dark, I am fure to find him not far from 
my lodging next morning. 

This it is which gives me fo much difturbance, 
and pierces me with a thoufand anxieties ; for I 
know not what to conjecture of this fellow's defign» 
Sometimes I think he is employed by Cardinal Ma- 
zarine to watch my motions, obferve what houfes 
imd company I frequent, and trace me in all my, 
appointments. And I am the more confirmed in 
this fufpicron, when I reflect on my former impri- 
fonment in this city, and the occafion of it. I>e- 
fides, v/hen I went yefterday to fee Eliachim the 
Jew, this fpark followed me near to the door : And, 
though I tarried there two full hours, yet, whens I 
came out, I had not walked a hundred paces before 
1 faw him again, footing it after me in a carelefs 
manner, with his arms folded, and his eyes fixed on 
the ground, as if he knew nothing of the matter., 
Thefe are convincing circumffances that he is fet 
at work by the Cardinal, or fomebody elfe, to dif- 
cover my bufinefs. 

But when, on the other fide, I confider, that, if 
the Cardinal fufpeóted me, he might go a nearer 
way to work,, and feize me in my chamber, whe.e 
my' letters would betray me, this thought vanifhes, 
znd I am at a lofs what to think. 

Then comts into my mind the encounter I had 
once with my Sicilian matter, who ftrove to fet the 
rabble upon me in. the ftreets of Paris ;. but mv bet- 
ter -ftars delivered me out of his and their hands, 
whilft, for aught I know, he drew upon himfelf 
the mifchief he defigned for me.. However, when 

I re- 


I reflect on that pafTage, I am apt to think he may 
be now in Paris, and, having by fome accident lien 
me go in or out of my lodgings, contrives how to 
revenge himfelf on me, and ufes this fellow's affift- 
ance in compafTing his ends. Perhaps, think I, he 
will caufe me to be ftabbed or piftolled at fome con- 
venient feafon ; or he will find out fome other way, 
lefs noify and more malicious, to difpatch me. It 
may De ne feeks to intrap me, and render me ob- 
noxious to the State. I have a thoufand imagina- 
tions about it, and know not what to conclude. I 
value not myfelf, nor am I careful to prolong a re- 
ferable life for my own fake. All that I can hope to 
enjoy in this world would come far fhort of tempt- 
ing me to fkreen myfelf from the ftroke of death, 
by an action unworthy of a philofopher and a man. 
But the duty and affection I owe to the Grand Sig- 
ner's fervice makes me willing to live till I have 
acquitted myfelf of my province with perfect fuccefs, 
that fo I may return to Constantinople with ho- 
nour : And then I care not how foon I poft to that 
unknown world, where all the generations of mor- 
tals take up their eternal reft : >or in this there is 
nothing but labour and grief. 

In the mean time, I know not what conduci: to 
ufe in this emergency ; whether I had beft to fpeak 
to this fellow, or difTemble my fufpicion ; whether 
it will be fafe to truft this event to the general Pro- 
vidence, or to facrifice him that gives me fo much 
difquiet, and fo fecure my peace. I could eafily 
have him difpatched without any far her noife. But 
then my conference would trouble me with after- 
claps, left I fhould have murdered a man without 
reafon, which is exprefly forbid by the Alcoran. 
Befides, I fhould always ftand in fear of feme dif- 
covery ; I proteft I am at a lofs for want of ample 
inftructions in fuch cafes as thefe. And I am wea- 
ry of mentioning what I have fo often intimated al- 
ready to the Ministers of the Porte, without any di- 
rect anfwer. However, I will do what my reafon 
fuggeib 3 and leave the event to Defliny. 

B 5 Happy 


Happy Miniiter ! The affairs of this world are 
full of dark windings and meanders ; and we have 
all need of a guide, or a clue, to conduct us thro' 
them. May the Omniprefent affili us, whenever 
we are catched in a knot, or loft in a labyrinth of 

- Paris, 25th of the 9th Moon, 
of the Year 1659. 


To Abdel Melee Muli Omar, Prefident of 
the College of Sciences at Fez. 

THY venerable difpatch I received with kifTes 
and a trimfport of joy. I thrice touched my 
eyelids with the paper of high eiteem, and as often I 
laid it to mybreait. I broke up the fealswith mo- 
deity and reverence, and my greedy eyes devoured 
♦he lines of profound wifdom; the fentences and 
aphorifms worthy to be written in letters of gold. 
Then it was I bleft the hour of my nativity, and 
the more happy moment wherein I firft had the ho- 
nour of thy familiarity and friendfhip : Oh, thou 
fincere and eximious patron of fuch as love the fci- 
ences ! Renowned for thy learning and probity of 
manners! Prince of the Alfaqui's and Doctors! 
Crown of the fage aiiembly of philofophers ! Ora- 
cle of the age ! 

Glory be to God, who has neither beginning nor 
end, who alone pofìefies the infinite expanfe'and 
life eternal ; who is adored by the inhabitants of 
Heaven, of Earth, and of Hell : Benedictions on 
Michael, Gabriel, Ifphrael, Ithuriel, Jeremiel, 
Hafmariel, and on all the happy Minifters of his 
Divine Majeflry ; as alfo on the angel of death. Peace 
to the True Believers on earth, and falvation to the 
devils and damned, after thev have accomplifhed 



their penance in Hell, and the term of wrath fhall 
be expired. 

An univerfal charity dilates my heart ; I embrace 
with love all the creatures of God. This is ow ng 
to the feafonable arrival of thy lecter : For, at the 
moment when that came, I was plunged in fo deep 
a melancholy, that I could hardly afford a kind 
thought for anything on earth, and I perfectly hated 
myfelf. I have thefe fits of fadnefs often, it being 
an effect of my conftitution. 

At thofe feafons, life appears an infupportable bur- 
then, and all the buftle and noile of mortals a vain 
fatigue. My fenfes, which, at other times, admi- 
nifter delight and pleafure, are now the inftruments 
c f anguifh and pain. Every thing I fee and hear 
difgufts rne, I abhor my neceffary food. Neither 
can the fweeteft odours, or fofteft {trains of mufick, 
bring me into a better temper : Till fleep eclipfes 
the light of my bufy imagination, and puts out 
every glaring thought. Then my foul takes her re- 
pcfe : And, ftealing from my body, enters into the 
mad}' vale of vifions, and fports with innocent ideas. 
Thus having diverted myfelf with jumbling mon- J 
frrous efTences together, and hurling one chimaera 
at another, I return again to my body, and, iighing, 
awake, grieved that I could not longer fray in that 
mock world, where I could have wifhed my refi- 
dence for ever. Thus is my anguifh renewed with 
i he morning. Light is more irKifome to me than 
darknefs, and the day, which brings joy to other 
mortals, is more terrible to me than night, and the 
fhadow of death. 

I complain to the elements, but they will not hear 
or regard me. All nature feems to laugh at my af- 
fliction, and the beafts of the field triumph over me. 
As for men, here are none but Infidels, my profef- 
fed enemies, to whom I can vent my forrows : And' 
I am afhamed to make a woman my ConfefTor, tho s 
it were my ©wn mother, who lives in Paris, and 
daily fees me. 

B. 6 If, 


If,- in this dolorous condition, I prepare myfelf 
with the accuftomed purifications of the law, and 
add:efs to the Omnipotent, I know not where to 
find him.. His eflence is unfearchable, and flies 
from human thought. I call him aloud by his nine- 
ty-nine adorable names, but receive no anfwer. I 
repeat his incomprehensible attributes, but all tono 
purpofe. In a word, I fay and do all that the law 
Injoi .is, the Prophet counlels, holy perfons recom- 
mend, or my own reafon fuggefts, as proper means 
to obtain the favour of Heaven, and a redrefs of my 
calamity: But find no comfort. And, for aught I 
know, that Spaniard might as foon be heard, who, 
being ignorant what form of prayer to ufe, rehearfed 
the four-and-twenty letters of the alphabet, defiring 
God to form fuch words out of them as beft expref- 
{td the petitioner's neceffities. 

I tell thee, illuftrious Prelate, af:er I am tired 
with vocal devotions, I haverecourfe to contempla- 
tion. I examine my paft life, and find, that I my- 
felf am the fource of my own melancholy, in not : 
ftricrly obeying the law of the Prophet, the precepts 
of the Seniors, and the dictates of my confcience : . 
And all this, for the fake of loyalty to the Grand 
Signior, and in confidence to the Mufti's difpenfa- 
tion. Now I afk thee, whether it be lawful to com- 
mit a thousand vices, that I may only acquit my- 
felf fairly in one virtue ; or to think, that, in fuch 
f; cafe, the Mufti has power to difannul the exprefs, , 
pofitive injunctions of our holy Lawgiver ? Is the 
empire.of the Faithful to be ferved by the infidelity 
and prophanenefs of MufTulmans, or the truth to 
b« fupported by lyes and perjuries ? 

I tremble to think what a confufion I fhall be in , 
when the Prophet fhall reproach me, that I have 
preferred thefavour cf men to the fmiles of Heaven. . 
licnownot what to do. Oh that I were in the- 
parching defarts of Lybia ! Or any of the moft un- 
frequented folitudes of Egypt ! A companion of 
ùragons, and other horrid monfters of Africa ! Ra- 
ther than in this flation> which renders my life a 



hell upon earth, and toiments me with half the dif- 
quiets of the damned. 

But, ài this appears too extravagant and defperate 
a thought, let me at leaft wifri myfelf at Fez, the 
meanelt of thy flaves, or of thy incomparable Mufu 
Abul Yahyan, of whom thy lair, letter gave fo high • 
a character. I have addrefted a difpatch to him > 
hoping for the honour of his friendihip and corre- 

Let not the liberty I have taken to tell thee of my 
fadnefs difcourage thee from writing: But reft af-- 
fured that, whenever thou fhalt vouch fafe me a let- 
ter, though I were in the agonies of death, it-woulàu 
call me back again. 

Paris, 25th of the 9th Moon, . 
of the Year j 6 59 ._ 


To the Kaimacham. 

THESE Nazarenes are very fertile in new re- 
ligions. Europe is a wildernefs over-run" 
-V7Ìth monitrous feels ?.nd herefies. Every .age pro- 
duces frem pretenders to prophecy and divine reve- 
lation. Error is prolifick. and multiplies infinite- 
ly ; whilft troth remains the fame for ever, and is 
comprehended in a a few rules. 

Of late years there are a fort of people fprung up 
in England, Holland, Germany, and other parts of 
the North, boafting of a new commi/non given 
them from Heave» to preach the everlafting truth, 
reform the errors and vices of mankind, and lead 
people the only infallible way to happinefs. Their 
addrefs is plain end fimple, bold and uniform, ufing 
no other ceremonies or compliments in their dif- 
courfe-or carnage to perfons of the greateft quality, 


than to the vulgar, and thofe of the moft inferior 

They flyle themfelves ' The true feed, the off- 
c fpring of Jacob, Jews of the promife, Ifraelites 
1 without fraud,' with fuch-Iike vain titles 5 but by 
others they are generally called Quakers. 

They fay the ringleader of this people profefies 
himfelf to be the Meflias, being, in all parts of his 
body and features of his face, like Jefus the fon of 
Mary : Or, at leaft, it is obferved, that he exacily 
refembles the portraiture of him which PubliusLen- 
tulus fent to the Senate of Rome out of Judaea, 
when he was Governor of that province. Hence 
his followers fcruple not to call him 'Jefus, the 
1 beauty of ten thoufand, the only begotten Son of 

* God, the Prophet who is to feal up all things, the 

* Prince of peace, King of Ifrael, J udge, confola- 

* tion, and hope of the world.' 

When he travels, his difciples attend him bare- 
headed, which, thou knoweft, is a token of reve- 
rence among the Franks ; yet they never uncover to 
any other mortal. He rides on horfeback, whilft 
they w T alk on foot before, behind, and on each fide 
of him, fpreading their garments in the way thro' 
which he palTes. The hoofs of his beali: tread only 
on filks or other coftly ftuffs. And, as they enter 
any town or city, they chant aloud his praifes, pro- 
claiming him ' The Son of David, and heir of the 
c divine promifes.' 

All his followers pretend to be prophets, boafting 
of Itrange illuminations and raptures, foretelling 
things to come, and reproaching the vices of Go- 
vernors and the greater! Princes, with a boldnefs 
which has but few precedents. In a word, they 
every-where preach that God is laying the founda- 
tion of a new monarchy, which fhall deftroy ail 
the reft in the world, and fhall never have an end 

This gives a jealoufy to the States where they 
live, and therefore they are perfecuted in all places. 



Yet they appear very conftant in their lufferings, 
and tenacious of the doctrines they preach. 

They feem, in my opinion, to refemble one of 
our Muflulman feóts, who aflert, that Jefus the 
fon of Mary fhall return again upon earth ; that he 
fhall marry and beget children, be anointed King 
cf the nations who believe in one God, and in this 
glorious fiate fhall reign forty years ; after which 
he fhall fubdue Antichrift, and then fhall follow the 
difTolution of all things. Yet the Orthodox Be- 
lievers reject this tenet as fabulous. Neither is there 
any countenance given to it in that verfe of the Al- 
coran, where it is faid, ' Thou Mahomet fhalt fee 
4 thy Lord return in the clouds :' Since that only 
intimates the glorious defcent which Mofes, Jefus, 
and Mahomet fhall make fromParadife, with Enoch, 
Elias, and the one hundred twenty-four thoufand 
prophets, to aflemble the elecì: at the day of judg- 

If thou wouldefl have my opinion of thefe new 
religionilts in Europe, and their leader ; I take him 
to be an impoftor, and his followers to be either 
fools or madmen. Even juft fuch another crew as 
thofe who followed Mofeileima, in the days of our 
holy Lawgiver. This was an Arabian importer 
who pretended to fet up for a Prophet, and attempt- 
ed to compofe a book like the Alcoran. But he v/as 
infatuated with a vain arrogance, and there was no 
truth or elegance in his writings, no juflice on his 
fide, nor underftanding in him or his party. To be 
fhort, both he and they were all cut to pieces in the 
vale of Akreb by the troops of Abu-BacrofTadic, 
the firft Caliph. 

As to thefe modern feducers, they are not men of 
arms, but a herd of filly, infignifkant people, aim- 
ing rather to heap up riches in obfeurity, than to 
acquire fame by an heroick undertaking. They are. 
generally merchants or mechanicks, and are ob- 
ferved to be very punctual in their dealings, men of 
few words in a bargain, modefi and compofed in 
their deportment, temperate in their lives, and ufing 



great frugality in all things. In a word, they are 
lingular! y induitnous, fparing no labour or pains to 
incr-_afe their wealth ; and fo fubtle and inventive, 
that they would, if poffible, extract gold out of 
afhes. I know none that excel them in thefe cha- 
racters, but die Je-vs and the Banians : The former 
being the craftieft of all men, and the latter fo fu- 
perlatively cunning, that they will over-reach the 

But thefe are no figns of a pure religion ; for 
that only prefcribes the methods of withdrawing 
and feparating the foul from the contagion of earth- 
ly things, and of uniting it to the Deity, which is 
its fource. 

Illuftrious Kaimacham, I bid thee adieu, praying, 
that thou and I may at lair, meet in that center of ali 
things, after cur various epicycles and excurfions in 
this lower world. 

Paris, 1 5th cf the 1 ith Moon, 
of the Year 1659. 


To the fame. 

IS E N T a difpatch fome moons pall: to the Ca- 
dilefquier of Romelia, guardian of the imperial 
canons, interpreter of the laws of equity; wherein 
I informed him of the advances that were made in 
order to a peace between France and Spain. Now 
I can allure thee, that peace- is concluded, and the 
articles llgned on both fides by the two Plenipo- 

I need not repeat what I particularly related to 
that Grandee. My letters are all publifhed in the 
Divan, and regiftered. Yet it will not be unwel- 
come, perhaps, to thee, to hear with what nicenefs 
i>f puii&ilio thefe ln£del Miniiters meet to accom- 



plifh an afFair whereon depend the interefr. and ho- 
nour of their refpeclive mafters, the happinefs of 
the two kingdoms, and the general byais of all the 

There is a little ifland formed by the river Bidaf- 
foa, called the hie of Pheafants,- through the mid- 
dle of which a line is drawn, which exactly fepa- 
rates the territories of both Monarchs. This place 
was agreed on for the interview of the two Minis- 
ters. Each had his bridge to enter the iiland in that 
part which belonged to his mafter ; and over the line 
of feparation was erected a large divan or council- 
room, to be entered only by two private doors, one 
out of Cardinal Mazarine's lodgings, raifed on the 
French fide of the council-room ; the other out of 
Don Louis d' Aro's apartment, built on the Spanifh 

Each of thefe Minifters was accompanied by fe- 
veral Princes and Grandees of the Court, and above- 
fixty other perfons of quality, with a guard of four 
hundred horfe and foot to fecure their bridges and 
the place of conference. In a word, things were 
managed with fo much moderation and good fuccefs, 
that the Marmai de Gramont was fent AmbafTador 
into Spain, and received at that Court with infinite 
civilities and honour. 

The fubjecT: of his negotiation was- to treat of a 
match between the King, his mafter, and the Infan- 
ta of Spain. His conduci: and addrefs^ were fuch 
as foon procured the Catholick King's confent : And 
from that time the Marmai approached the Infanta 
with more than ordinary fubmifftons, efteeming her 
now as the Queen of France. Soon after this, the 
nuptial contrae!: and the peace were mutually fign- 
ed, to the immenfe joy of the fubjecls of both 
fides, who were very glad to exchange the toils and' 
calamities of war for the fweets and profits of 

It will be endlefs to infert here all the articles on 
which they agreed. Two will be worth the know- 
ledge of the fuprcme Divan. And thofe are the- 



releafe of Charles, Duke of Lorrain, on the Spanifli 
King's fide: And, on the part of the King of 
France, the reftoration of the Prince of Conde to 
the free polleffion and enjoyment of all his eftates, 
honours, dignities, and privileges as the firft Prince 
of the royal blood, with the government of the pro- 
vinces of Bourgoigneand BrefFe. 

A little before thefe articles were figned, the young 
Prince of Spain died fuddenly, not having feen, 
twelve moons. I mentioned the birth of this royal 
infant in one of my letters, and the extraordinary 
folemnities that were made thereupon by the King 
of Spain and his AmbafTadors at foreign Courts. 
Thefe Infidels appear in all things too paffionately 
affecled with the glories of our mortal ftate, which 
at the height are but tranfient fhadows, or fome- 
thing lefs confiderable. 

I am amazed at the bold rebellion of the Bafla of 
Aleppo, and that he mould endeavour to cheat the 
empire with fo fiale an impofture as a fham fon- of 
Amurath. Yet it feems he made a confiderable 
progrefs under this pretence. Some were glad of 
novelty, others were frightened out of their alle- 
giance : Whilft only a few ferved his intereft in pure 
difcontent and hopes to amend their fortune. The 
country people are generally opprefled by their Go- 
vernors, and it is no wonder if they take up arms 
for one that promifes to deliver them from their ca- 
lamities. This is the ufual pretext of all innova- 
tions in the State. The foldiers are alfo defrauded 
of their due pay; and then they are ready to fight 
under the next General that brings moft money with 
him. Neither are there wanting malecontents among 
the Grandees, at fuch times, to foment and abet an 

All thefe events proceed from the ill conduci: of 
the fupreme Minifters, who alone are refponfible for 
the mifcarriages of the State. 

Illuftrious Kaimacham, the frame of the Ottoman 
Government is out of order; I wifh fate does. not 



pull it in pieces, as a neceflary ftep to its amend- 
ment. Adieu. 

Paris, zd of the laft Moon, 
of tie Year 1659. 


To Harriet, Reis Effendi, Principal Secretary 
of the Ottoman Empire, 

IWI S H thee all imaginable joy of thy new dig- 
nity ; yet queflion whether thou or thy pre- 
deceffor be the happier man. It is a vali honour in- 
deed, and attended with immenfe profit, to ferve in 
this ftation the moft high, moft potent, and moft 
invincible Monarch on earth. But, at the fame 
time, there is infinite toil and fatigue in it, with 
abundance of perils. From all which the fortunate 
Muzlu is now delivered, and they are become thy 

As for him, I cannot but efteem him happy, in 
that he has got permiiHon to retire to his country- 
feat, out of the croud and noife of the city, and 
from the ftifling bufineflès of State, which choke 
the more innocent and natural delights of the foul. 
Now he is fully reftored to the elements, and to 
himfelf; whereas, before, the perpetual hurry of 
the Court made him in part a irranger to both : 
For there a man infenfibly lofes acquaintance with 
his own moft intimate affeftions. His fpirit is ali- 
enated amidft the multiplicity of his concerns ; it 
is ftretched on the rack of ten thoufand cares and 
inquietudes -, it is divided, mattered, and rent in 

Befides, were he as free from thefe diftraciing 
thoughts as a fan tone ; yet the very neceflity of 
Irving always in a city was enough to render him 
miferable. For I efteem fuch a confinement no bet- 


ter than a prifon at large, and not far from being- 
buried alive. 

It is true Conftantinople has the advantage of all 
the cities in the world, for the delightfulnefs of its 
iituation ; the houfes being fo pleafantly intermixed 
with fair gardens, and the ftreets refrefhed with cold 
breezes frcm the fea. It looks at a diftance like a 
town in a wood : Or one may term it a foreft com- 
poied of minarets and cyprefiès. The terraffes af- 
ford agreeable profpeCts of the neighbouring field? 
and mountains ; and it is pleafant to itand on thè 
water- fide, and view the innumerable variety of 
boats and veffels failing from one port to another,, 
with all the other divertifements on the fea, and the 
beautiful mixture of palaces and groves, chiofes and 
gardens, feraglio's and villages, which grace theop- 
pofite mores. O Queen of cities, Miftrefs of king- 
doms, glory of nations, Commandrefs and fanclu- 
ary of the whole earth ! Thrice happy mould I 
count my.felf, if I might have the favour to refide- 
within thy venerable walls, and exchange the pol- 
luted fociety of Infidels for that of True Believers. 

How often do I languidi to fee the glittering cres- 
cents, the triumphant enfigns of the Ottomans, on 
the tops of the minarets in the Imperial city ! How- 
often do I wifh myfelf proftrate on the carpets of 
the facred mofques, in the devour affemblies of the 
Faithful, adoring the Eternal in the perfection of 
fancl:ity ! Whereas now I am forced to go into the 
temple of Idolaters, to kneel and bow down before 
ftocks and ftatues, to jo : n feemingly with Unbe- 
lievers, and pray to that which has no life, nor 
feme, nor power. 

How do I envy the blefled ftate of the meaneft 
artifan in Conftantinople, who daily feeds on the 
whok r ome pilau of the Eaft, and drinks the delec- 
table fherbets", or waters, tinctured with the rich 
fruits cf Greece ? Whereas Ì am compelled to eat 
meats forbidden by our holy Prophet, and to render 
my foul execrable by an impure and profane diet, or 
I muft fiarve. For thefe Uncircumcifed are more. 



abominable than ravens and vultures, to whom the 
•moft filthy carrion is a dainty. And, to cloke their 
-uncleannefs, they corrupt their own Gofpel, and 
forge a toleration from the Meffias himfelf. As if 
that holy Prophet, who, in every the leaft tittle, 
obeyed the law of Mofes, and fet himfelf as an ex- 
ample for his followers to imitate, could be guilty 
of contradicting thofe divine precepts, and running 
counter to his own practice, in recommending un- 
cleannefs and libertinifm. No : The admirable fon 
of Mary was the moft temperate and 
in the world, and, both in his words and actions, 
preached up thofe virtues to others ; having often 
exprefly declared to his difciples, 'That he came 
c not to abolifh the law, but to refine and perfect, it.' 

He was circumcifed on the eighth day after his 
nativity, according to the injunction of Mofes, and 
the conftant practice of the fons of Ifrael. In a 
word, through the whole courfe of his life he ne- 
ver deviated from the traditions of his fathers, the 
Seniors of the houfe of Jacob. 

It is true, he frequently argued againft the many 
trivial fuperftitions of the Phaniees, who evacuated 
the more efTential points of the law by fuperin- 
ducing a number of infignificant ceremonies : But 
he never opened his mouth againft any pofitive pre- 
cept ; fuch as were thofe which limited the choice 
they were to make of meats, diftinguifhing the im- 
pure from the clean. Yet the Chnftians delude 
themfelves with a fai fe belief that he gave them a 
difpenfation to eat any thing without caution or re- 

Hence it is that they defile themfelves with fwine's 
flefh and creeping things, and blood is in all their 
. difhes. They fcruple not to eat of that which died of 
itfelf, and banquet as free'y with what was knock- 
ed down or ftrangled, as we would do with the flefh. 
of a beaft that was killed in pronouncing the name 
of God. The fhambles here afford no other provi- 
sion but fuch as this ; and he that will not eat that 



which is an abomination to a Muflulman muft be 
contented with herbs. This I reckon as one of the 
greateft of my misfortunes, and it makes me burn 
with defire to return to Conftantinople. 

Yet, after all, I mould think myfelf far more 
happy, if I might have the liberty to fpend the reft 
of my days in my native country : So great an ad- 
mirer I am of a rural life and iblitude. And it is 
for this reafon I count thy predeceflor a happy man, 
in having the privilege of a fweet retirement ; where 
he may take breath from the vain importunity and 
bufile of mortals. 

In the mean time, there is a fpecies of felicity in 
thy employment : And thou can'ft not be called re- 
ferable, fo long as thou acquitteft thyfelf fairly, and 
enjoyeft the favour of thy Sovereign. 

I perceive by thy letter, that thou art curious to 
know the characters of foreign States, with the va- 
rious interefts of Nazarene Princes ; the intrigues 
of thefe Weftern Courts ; their overtures of peace 
and war ; and the different laws, maxims, 2nd cuf- 
toms by which the people are governed. Thy con- 
verfation with AmbafTadors at the Porte will furnifh 
thee with abundance of ufeful remarks of this kind : 
But, fince thou requireft me to fend my obferva- 
tions, I will hereafter obey thy commands in fuc- 
cefiive letters j for this is too large a theme for one 

At prefent thou mayeft receive and regifter for 
true news, that the peace between France and Spain 
has been figned by both Kings, and folemnly pub- 
limed throughout their territories, with inexpref- 
fible joy and magnificence. It is certain alfo, that 
the King of Sweden is dead, and the Duke of Or- 
leans, uncle to the French King : Which has, in 
fomemeafure, qualified the mirth of the French on 
this occafion. Afiuredly, human affairs are equally 
checquered with good and evil. Blifs comes not to 
us in pure unmixed ftreams. Death keeps an even 
pace, and knocks as boldly at the gates of Kings, as 
at the cottages of the meaner! Haves. 



It is the part of a wife man to be always refigned 
to Heaven, and prepared for the worft events : As 
for the beft, they never come amifs. 

Paiis, 17th of the 3d Moon, 
of the Year 1660. 


To Dgnet Oglou. 

SH A L L I converfe with thee as Horace ufed to 
do with his friends over a glafs of generous 
wine ? Let us lay afide mafks for a while, and dif- 
courfe with open fouls. I believe thou haft as equal 
a veneration for our holy Prophet as I ; and haft 
been educated in all the tendernefies of piety, the 
niceties of divine love, as our mollahs are pleafed 
to call it. We have been both of us careful to rife 
before the fun, and fay our oraifons every morning 
in a demi-trance, that is, half afleep, and half 
awake. This, no doubt, is a neceffary point of 
piety. And we have been no lefs follicitous in ob- 
ferving the other four hours of prayer. Either of 
us would have accounted it an irreligious negligence, 
if we had feen a piece of paper on the ground, and 
had not ftooped to take it up, with reverence wiping 
off the dirt, and killing the Tabula Rafa, on which 
men ufe to write the name of God. As if it were 
not an equal argument of refpecr. to fecure from 
profanation flicks, ftones, rags, or any thing where- 
on it were poiTible to engrave or print the all-myf- 
terious characters : Nay, or the very fands them- 
felves, which, as fome fay, were the firft books on 
earth. However, if they were not the firft, we are 
fure, that, in veryrearly ages, men ufed to ftamp 
their memoirs, or draw them out in perceptible 
figures^ en the furfaceof the earth : Witnefs the old 
Shipwrecked philofopher, who, being caft afhore on 
3 ™ 


an unknown land, foon traced out the manners of 
the people, by certain mathematical impreffions 
which he found in the fands : For he concluded 
thefetobe the very footfteps of humanity and virtue. 
But, to return tothebufinefs of religion, we have been 
obedient to the inftruétions of our fathers and tutors, 
.2-ealous in obferving every punctilio of traditional pi- 
ety : We have faded, prayed, warned, and given alms, 
at the appointed fealbns, and in the manner prefcri- 
-bed by the law. All thefe, Town, are commendable 
exercifes : But, methinks, they are not the folid and 
iubftantial parts of true religion. I hate hypocrify 
and the devout wantonnefs of fome who think to 
mock God with ceremonies and empty forms. It 
were much better to mix with the idolatrous rites of 
.Bacchus (if they defer v-e that epithet) and rant in 
honour of eternal wine, talk reputed blafphemy, 
and reform the model of theuniverfe ; I fay, I would 
chufeto-do all this and more, rather than cheat my- 
ielf with empty hopes of gaining Paradiie, for acting 
to the life the mams of pious mimickry. 

I would not have thee think that what I have now 
faid proceeds from any contempt of the Eternal Ma- 

By thofe fair heavens above, and all the immortal 
fpangles of the fky, I fwear there is not a faculty 
in Mahmut's foul which is not filled with gratitude 
.and veneration, which does not burn with flames 
of facred love to the adorable fountain of all things. 
In a word, I only ftrive to refcue my friend from the 
attempts of pious frauds, and the religious "burlefques 
of our Mollahs and Mufti's. 

Believe me, dear Dgnet, that there is a God, a 
firft Caufe, a juft Judge prefiding over the world ; 
Believe alfo his Prophet, the holy, the beloved Ma- 
homet, the minion, as I may fay, of the Omnipo- 
tent. But have fome faith al£> for the relè et his 
.melTengers and favourites. Let not Hali be thought 
of without fome inward flurries of devotion. He 
was a MulTulman, and the fourth Caliph, though 
his followers be damned hereticks in our divinity. 



Had right taken place, perhaps he had been the firft 
of the Vicars, but his caule was fuipended by his 
abfence. Let him and that reft till the final inqui- 
sition. And acknowledge that I have faid too little 
for a Schiai, and not too much for a Sunni. 

I know no reafon alfo, why we fhould not reve- 
rence the memories of Mercury, Orpheus, Cadmus, 
Meliffus, Faunus, and the reft of the ancient Sages 
and Lawgivers, who inltructed the nations of the 
earth in the myfteries of religion, taught them to 
adore one fupreme God, to believe the immortality 
of the foul, and to praótife good works. 

What tho' the ceremonies of their worfhin were 
(• liferent from ours, and, perhaps, polluted with an 
unjuftifiable adoration of images ? What though 
their altars reeked with the blood of flam beafts, and 
fometimes fmoked even with human Sacrifices ? 
Thefe barbarous rites were not inftituted by the 
firft oracles of religion, illuminated fouls, nuncio's 
from God to this lower world : But they were after- 
wards fuperinduced, through the corruption of 
times, the avarice of priefts, and the fuperftition of 
the people. And, for aught we know, our own hifto- 
rians have not been impartial in relating the truth. 

There is an innate envy between people of diffe- 
rent families and nations. Both we and our fathers, 
that defcend from Abraham by Ifmael, and the 
Jews, who are his pofterity by Ifaac, have been too 
favourable to the offspring of that beloved of God, 
We generally entertain and cherifh a fpecifick pride 
en the fcore of our illuftrious pedigree ; especially 
the Jews, who will not allow any people on earui 
to be their equals, either in point of antiquity, the 
nobility of their race, or the innumerable multitude 
of their brethren. Whereas they confider not, that 
they are difperfed up and down over the whole 
earth, like fheep without a Shepherd ; not permitted 
to poffefs a cubit of land, which they can call their 
own : Contemned, hated, and made a proverbial 
feoff among all nations : Infamous vagabonds, usu- 
rers, flaves, and pimps to other men's pleafures : 

Vol. VI. C Mm 


Men of no fame or character : Finally, in their pre- 
sent circumftances, the moft fpurious and ignoble 
of all the fons of Adam, except the Kafars of Ethi- 
opia, who feed on the guts and dung of beafts. 

It is true, indeed, their anceftors^made a confi- 
•clerable figure in the world, in the daysof Solomon 
and other victorious Kings, during their pofTeiTion 
of Paleftine. And yet, in thofe very times, they 
were often humbled and led away into captivity by 
the more fortunate Kings of Babylon, Perfia, and 
Aflyria ; and afterwards iubdued by the Grecians, 
till, at laft, they were totally ruined, their cities 
laid wafte, their temple burnt to afhes, and their 
country quite difpeopled by the Romans. 

Ifweafcend yet higher to their celebrated mi- 
gration out of Egypt, of which their own hiftorians 
make fuch a noife, and tell fo many fabulous won- 
ders, we fhall find a very mean and contemptible 
character given of them by Egyptian writers, and 
thofe of other nations, men of as great authority as 
Jofephus,or any other Jewifh hiftorians. Manethos, 
a prieft of Egypt, calls them a crew of leprous and 
nafty people, and fays they were expelled the coun- 
try by Amenophis, then reigning, and driven into 
Syria; their Captain being Mofes, an Egyptian 
prieft. A like relation we have from Chreremon, an 
author of good credit among the Greeks, who tells 
us that, in the reign of Amenophis, two hundred 
and fifty thoufand lepers were forcibly banifhed out 
of Egypt, under the conduct of Tifithen and Pete-- 
feth (i.e. Mofes and Aaron.) And, though other 
writers differ in the name of the King then reigning 
in Egypt, yet all agree in afierting the Ifraelites to 
be a nafty fort of people, over-run with fcabs and 
infectious boils, and that they were efteemed the 
fcum and filth of the nation. Tacitus, a Roman 
writer, of unqueftionable authority, edds, that Mo- 
fes, one of the exiled lepers, being a man of wit and 
reputation among them, when he faw the grief and 
confufion of his brethren, bid them be of good 
cheer, and neither truft the Gods or men of Egypt,. 
5 but 


hut only confide in him, and obey his counfel : For 
that he was fent from Heaven to be their conductor 
out of this calamity, and to protect them from all 
their enemies. Upon which the people, not know- 
ing what courfe to take, Surrendered themfelves 
wholly to his difpofal ; from which time he became 
their Captain and Law-giver, leading them through 
the defarts of Arabia, where they committed great 
rapine and fpoi-1, putting man, woman, and child 
to the fword, burning their cities, and laying all 
things defolate. Dear Dgnet, what could be laid 
worfe of a company of robbers and banditti ? 

Mofes is gone to Paradife, and,, v/hen*I mention 
his name, it is with a profound reverence; for he 
was the greater! of the ancient Prophets. Yet, give 
-me leave to have fonie regard for my own reafon. He 
was but a mortal as well as I ; and without doubt 
was not exempt from human frailties. He had the 
-advantage to be educated in the college of the royal 
Prieils at Memphis, which none of his nation could 
boalf. of befides himfelf. Suiter me to tell thee my 
thoughts frankly and without difguife. Magick 
and altrology were the only fciences then in vogue : 
And, he being perfectly verfed in all the myflerics 
.and fecrets of Egyptian wifdom, it was no hard tafk 
for him to poffefs the rude and ignorant fons -of Jacob 
with a profound attachment and veneration for his 
perfon ; and, in that diffrefTed condition, to mould 
their flexible fpirits to what difcipline he pleafed. 

Sufpecl me not for an Infidel or an Atheift, be- 
caufe I difcourfe with this freedom. I have heard 
feme of our Mollahs fay a great deal -more in their 
private converfation. And it is a fuperftitious ti- 
moroufnefs not to be bold in the exercife of our 
•reafon, which taught even the Prophet Mofes him- 
felf the method of conqueft, and getting a fame 
which mould have no end. 

I am not ambitious, nor would I tempt thee to 

afpire at an undue grandeur : But let us not be lefs 

than ourfelves, that is, men. There is no reafon we 

fhould be impofed upon by fabulous reports of in- 

C 2 tereft- 


tereftcd and designing writers : Or that we fhould 
give faith to every credulous fool. Doubtlefs there 
were many nations eftablifhed on earth before the 
Ifraelites ; and great Prophets, who were not of the 
lineage of Abraham. . The date of the olympiads 
is much more certain to a day, nay, to an hour, 
than the hegira of the Ifraelites ; fince the former 
is demonftrated by the eclipfes of the fun and moon, 
interwoven by the Gentile hiitorians in the body of 
their hiftory ; whereas the latter is defective in this 
material point, and is expofed to a thoufand difputes 
among writers. 

My friend, let not thou and I trouble ourfelves 
with needlefs controverfies, or be zealous for things 
of no moment ; but, adoring one God, and be- 
lieving what is rational, we may poiTeis our fouls in 
tranquillity and peace. 

Paris, ii tli of the 5th Moon, 
of the Year 1660. 


To the Kaimacham. 

AT length, after a long alienation, the Prince 
of Conde is reftored to the King's favour: For 
which he is obliged to the King of Spain. I have 
already intimated, in one of my letters, that this 
was agreed on in the treaty of peace between thefe 
two Crowns, as an article equivalent to that of the 
Duke of Lorrain's releafe, follicited by the King 
of France. New it is put in execution, and the 
rebel Prince is received with abundance of caréfles 
by the King, Queen-Mother, Cardinal Mazarine, 
and the whole Court. 

He is counted the valianteit man of this age • and 
was fo pronounced long ago by the Marfhal Tu- 
renne, who is a foldier of no mean character, both 
for his judgment and courage. He was once ex- 


tremely beloved by all the French ; but his wild- 
nefs and inconftancy, with the deitruetive effects of 
the civil wars which he raifed, changed their affec- 
tions, for a while, into indifference, coldnefs, and 
ill-will. But now all is well again. 

He and his brother the Prince of Conti leldom 
agreed, being often the heads of contrary parties, 
during the minority of this K ing ; and, the younger 
being crump- fhouldered, Conde ufed to be a little 
farcaftick upon him, threatening to (have his un- 
courtly back into the fafhion with his fword. 

It is certain the Prince of Conde was very wild 
and profuie when young, but now he begins to take 
foberer meafures. During his father's life, he was 
called the Duke of Enguien ; and, to reflect on the 
parfimony of the old Prince, he ufed to take feveral 
handfuls of gold with one hand and fill a purfe, fay- 
ing, ' This is my father's practice.' Then he would 
turn the purfe upfide down with the other hand, 
and, fcattering the gold among his favourites, would 
add, ' This is my humour.' 

Once, as he was pafiing on foot through a town 
in France under his father's government, the chief 
Magiftrate of the place, who was an old man, met 
him, and began to make an oration with the belt 
rhetorick that he could. But the Prince, being in 
a frblickfome humour, teak advantage of a very low 
cenge the old Gentleman made him, and leaped 
over his head, and flood {till behind him. The Ma- 
giftrate, not taking any notice of this wild prank, 
turned very gravely about, and addreffed himfelf 
with a new obeiiance, but not lb low as the former. 
However, the nimble Prince catched him upon the 
half-bent, and, fe.ting his hand upon the old Mon- 
fieur's fhoulders, whipped over again the fecend 
time ; which cmite fpoiled his intended fpeech, to 
the great diveriion of all the fpeclators. 

In his youth he was much addicted to women, and 

took a peculiar delight in debauching nuns ; which 

occafioned the Queen- Mother to re fleer, on him 

fomething fatyrically once, when he informed her, 

C 3 that 


that the Swifs folciers were guilty of great diforderJ* 
iònie of them getting into the nunneries and vio- 
lating the chaftity of thole confecrated females. For 
the Queen replied, ' If you had told me they broke 
' into the wine-cellars,. I would believe you ; for 
' the SwifFes are all known drunkards.. But, as for 
1 amours with nuns, none is fo likely to make them 
* as the Duke of Enguien.' 

However, all that I have faid hinders not but 
that he is now a prudent man, a good General, and 
fortunate in recovering his Sovereign's favour. 

In a word, this Court is fo overjoyed at the mar- 
l iage of the King with the Infanta of Spain, that they 
have no room left for peeviih refentments. All 
-ctimes are forgiven ; and the Devil himfelf would 
te welcome at the wedding, provided he would be 
debonnair and good company. 

The nuptials are only celebrated by proxy as yet,, 
but vafi preparations are making for completing 
the ceremony. 

What the iiTue of this marriage and peace will 
be, it is not eafy to divine: But, I doubt, the 
Chrifrians are hatching evil againit the Ottoman 
Porte, in regard all the Princes in Europe are*x:oming 
to an agreement. 

IIluiFrfous Kaimacham^ Let not this intimation 
pais away as a dream. >or I tell thee again thefe 
infidels are plotting of mifchief. 

'f*arh, ift of the 7 th Mccn, 
of the Year 1660. - 

To the fame. 

I Believe thou wilt now receive from me the earliefr. 
news of a mighty change, a furprifing revolu- 
tion in the Engliih government. Know then, that 
he whom I have i'o often mentioned, under the title 



of King of the Scots, in my former letters, the eldeit 
fon and rightful heir of the Britifh kingdoms,. 
Chnrlcs II, is reitored to the throne of his father, 
without violence or bloodfhed, by the unanimous 
content and earneft delire of his fubjecls. 

This young Prince has been an exile for twelve 
years in foreign Courts, and has heard of as many 
leverai alterations in the fiate of his dominions, 
during his abfence ; every change producing a new 
form of government. The rebeis had run over ali 
Ariftotle's politics, and the various models of Plata 
and other philofophers, who treated of common- 
wealths, to find out fuch patterns as beft fuited with 
the neceflities and genius of that nation. There is 
not a fpecies of ariitocracy, democracy, and oli- 
garchy, which they did not put in practice, to fup- 
port the frame of that Government, whofe bafis they 
had moved ; for it was founded on a monarchy of a 
long and hereditary defcent. And therefore all 
their molt artificial contrivances were ineffectual, 
and they might as well have endeavoured to make 
buttrefTes for a caftle in the air- In a word, the 
Englim found themfelves fo disjointed and weaken- 
ed by civil wars, taxes, and the other uiual effects 
of ufurpation and tyranny, that they had no other 
way left to fave their nation from utter ruin, but by 
bringing their lawful King hick again, who is the 
angular {tone whereon all their welfare and intereft 
is built. 

There is one thing remarkable in this turn of the 
Englifh affairs, that their Sovereign landed and 
made his triumphant entry into that ifland, on the 
anniverfary day of his birth. Which puts me in 
mind of what is generally difcourfed here at Paris, 
that on the day of his nativity there was feen a bright 
i'tar in the heavens, when the fun was j ufi above the 
meridian. From hence the afcrologers of thofe times 
predicted great things concerning him. And thofe of 
the prefenl age, who have feen his fortune to return 
to his kingdoms, prefage yet greater events to come.. 

God only knows what embryo's are in the womb 
C 4 of 


of futurity; and we MufTulmans have no reafon to 
rejoice at the grandeur of any of thefe Infidel Princes ; 
yet, fuch a fign as that of a ft ar appearing at noon- 
day, juft over the place where a mighty Queen was 
in labour with a Prince, has fomething in it extra- 
ordinary, and full of promiling circumftances. It 
wus an appearance of this nature which rendered the 
birth of the Mefììas fo illuftrious, though otherwife 
obfcure enough ; when the Eaftern Magi, directed 
by fuch a ftar, came and found Mary, the mother 
aì Jefus, in a (table, and the infant Prophet lying in 
a manger inftead of a cradle. So we are told, that 
eciipfes of the fun portend the misfortune or death 
©f great ptrfonages ; and that all other prodigies, 
whether in heaven or earth, have their proper figni- 

But, whether thefe obfervaticns be true or no, it 
is certain this late baniihed Prince is returned with 
abundance of fplendor and advantage to his native 
royal poiTeilions. And I thought it would be a 
grand neglect, in me to let one poll-day pafs before 
I gave thee an account of a revolution fo aflonifh- 
ing to all Europe, and which is likely to give a new 
turn to the affairs of molt Chriftian Princes and States. 

Befides, I knew there is an AmbaiTadcr from Eng- 
land refiding at the Auguft Porte, which determines 
the quarrels of all the nations en earth. There are 
ftlfo abundance of Enghfh merchants in the Impe- 
rni city. They may have feuds among one another. 
The iutereft of fome of them is joined with that cf 
theEnglim rebels ; others are for their King. There- 
fore, knowing cf his reiteration, thou wilt be better 
able to adjuft all matters of this nature, according 
to reafon, equity, and the honour of the majeftick 
Porte. For this King makes already a greater figure 
than any of his progenitors, and therefore his friend- 
ship is not to be contemned. 

The care of thefe things reft on thee, who art the 
Vicar's Vicar of the Vicegerent of God. 

P ris. 3d of the 7th Moon» 

of the Year 166c LET- 



To Mehemet, an exiled Eunuch, at Cairo, 
in Egypt. 

OH that I were in one of the pyramids near the 
city where thou redded, inut up in tremen- 
dous darknefs, in the mod obfcure and horrible 
vault of the royal pile ! That I might ccnverfe with 
the ghoits of Egyptian Kings, hug daemons in my 
arms, and run the gerit with hobgoblins, and all 
the fpirits of the night, round the tomb of Cheeps* 
or up and down the difrnal galleries, or in the nefr 
cf bats, fcreech-owls, harpies, and the reft of the 
winged monflers, the excremcntitioDs fpàwn of hu- 
man fouls, or at leaf! the fu perforation of pickled 
carcafes, repofitcd there for eternal mummies, fome 
©f them before Noah's flood, and the refi: after, if 
the itory be true. God knows whether it be or no : 
That is nothing to me : But I have a ftrong incli- 
nation to try what I can find in thefe antique mo- 
numents, after all the fearch of fo many travellers. 
I have a fpecifick fort of a melancholy about me, 
which cannot be vented any other way than by keep- 
ing company with the dead, or having ten hundred 
thoufand ugly rampant fpirits dancing their infernal 
meafures about mr, and grinning like baboons of 
hell. Oh, God ! how it would let me a laughing ! 
An entertainment of this nature would eafe my 
fpleen, and reftore me to a good humour. 

Are there no beings extant but thofe whick are 
every day expofed to our fenfes ? Or is Nature 
poorer than the imagination of a mortal, which can 
form the ideas of an infinity of creatures that he ne- 
ver faw ? I am cloyed with the crambo of objects and 
joys which thefe narrow elements afford, and there- 
fore would grope out feme new and untried world, 
to find refreshment in. 

But, oh, my Mehemet, when I look toward the 
heaven?, and behold the moon and liars ; when nrv 

c 5 *y« 


eye is loft in the boundlefs firmament, and my foul 
can find no limits to the univerfe ; then I fink into 
myfelf, full of humility and confulion, becaui'e I 
have injurioufly reproached the Omnipotent, and 
caft obloquies on his works. For all things appear 
admirably beautiful and perfecl, and the leaft atom 
is large enough to afford apartments for a thousand 
fouls. Every thing in nature is pregnant and full of 
pleafing wonders : Yet I cannot be free from thefe 
hypochondriack fits at certain feafons. I am fome- 
times the faddeft. and mod melancholy man in the 
world. I take all things by the wrong handle, look 
on them through falfeopticks, and yet perfuade my- 
„ fdt I am in the right, and fee them in their true 
complexion. Such is the fatal fophiftry of this black 
and fudden paiHon ; it takes away the gufi: and relifh 
of the fweeteft enjoyments. And, if the contagion 
could pombly find admittance among the bleffed 
above, iurely, it would render their Paradife a Hell, 
and would afford feme ground for the fiòtion of the- 
ancient poets, who brought up the ufe of Nepenthe 
among the Gods, to appeafe their choler, and put 
them in a good humour. 

I know not what that drink was : ButI tell thee my 
Nepenthe is a glafs of good Languedoc wine, which 
i? as rich, and far more delicious than the wine of 
Tenedos and Mitylene. I oncecould boaft of ano- 
ther mechod to fubdue my melancholy, by giving bat- 
tie to my thoughts in the open field ; but now I am 
fain to have reccurfe to ftratagems and ambufcades, 
trapanning the ugly hideous monfters out of their 
itrong retrenchments and faftneiles in the fpleen^ 
by generous frolicks with wine, women, and mu- 
fick. I bury all care in profound fleep, the effect 
of brifk and free drinking : And then I awake as 
merry as a lark } as young as if I had been in Me- 
dea's cauldron 

What fignifies it to pretend fanciity in our words 
and exterior carriage, whilft, at the fame time, we 
2re ready to burit with malice, pride, ambition, ava- 
rice, and a thoufand more vices ? Whereas wine, 



feafonably drank, cures all thefe diftempers of the 
foul, a mifer liberal, a cruel man tender, a 
fpiteful fellow kind ; melts ftift'and haughty fpirits 
into a wonderful foftnefs and complaifance : In fine,- 
it makes a lamb of a lion, and changes a vulture^ 
into a dove, purifying and transforming Luis into a 
temper wholly divine. 

Why then mould we be tied to laws of morality, 
never practifed by thofe who made them ? All the 
philofophers were boon companions, and our holy 
Prophet himfelf privately drank the juice of the 
grape. Our Emperors and Grandees do the fame. 
The only reafon why they forbid it to their fubjeòf.3 
is, left they mould grow too wife, and ftrive to 
{hake oft' the yoke : For vwné elevates the fpirits, 
imboldens the heart, and transforms a flave into a 
Lord, in his own conceit. For want of this liquor, 
all nations, where the vine grows not, have found 
out one beverage or another, as efficacious to relieve 
melancholy, and drive away forrow from the heart. 
The Chinefe make wine of rice. In my country 
they have another intoxicating drink compounded 
with certain roots. The fame is ufed in fome parts 
of Perfia. In thefe Weftern provinces, they brew 
divers forts of ftrong liquors of wheat, barley, ho- 
ney, melaffes, and other ingredients. And they 
make wine of apples, pears, cheir'.es, currants, and 
moil fruits that grow. I. tell thee, my friend, there is 
no living, *unlefs we fometimes give nature a new 
ferment, to roufe her from her lees. 

Yet, let us praclife a due mediocrity, remember- 
ing that God gave us thefe things for our health and 
refrefhment, and not for our bane. In a word, Me- 
hemet,. let us be merry and wife. 

Paii?, 26th of the 8th Moon, 
of the Year 166c 

C 6 LET- 



To Hamet, Reis Effendi, Principal Secretary 
of the Ottoman Empire. 

I HA VE taken fome pains, turned over a great 
many memoirs of old Courtiers, and converfed 
wfth not a few now living, who can remember the 
days of Henry IV, that fo I may comply with thy 
order, and oblige thee with fome remarks on the life 
of that Prince, who, though he had but a little 
body, yet, like another Alexander, had fo vaft a 
foul, and performed fuch illuftrious actions, as de- 
fervedly faftened on him the title of Great, and 
made him be efteemed the arbiter of all Europe. 

It is obferved of him, that he was always unfor- 
tunate in his wives ; yet they relate a pretty pafTage 
of his firfrwife, Margaret of Valois, which feems 
to contradict that remark. 

He was then a Proteftant, and only King of Na- 
varre, when the famous maflàcre of Paris was com- 
mitted, with dehVn to murder him among the reft 
of his religion. But, being aware of this, when he 
heard the aflaflins making towards his chamber, 
where he fat with the Queen, he hid himfelf under 
her garments, as fhe fat in her chair. The villains, 
ruining in, aiked for the King : She, with a great 
affurance of fpirit, told them, ' He went out from 
* her in a pafHon.' They, feeming fatisfied, went 
away, without doing any farther hurt. Which oc- 
c fio ned a common jeft, ' That Queen Margaret's 
4 fmock faved King Henry's life.' 

This woman was called the Minerva and Venus 
of France, on the fcore of her learning and amours, 
never denying any thing to her lovers, and being 
ieldom without men of fcience in her company. In 
a word, King Henry looked upon himfelf as a noted 
cuckold, and fo gave her a bili of divorce. Her own 



mother, Catharine de Medicis, was called c the 
■ fourth fury of hell.' 

It is recorded of this Lady, that me praciifed 
much with wizards and magicians, who, in an in- 
chanted glafs, mewed her who mould reign in 
France for the time to come. Firft, appeared this 
Henry IV, then Lewis XIII, next Lewis XIV, and, 
after him, a pack of Jefuits, who fhould abolifh the 
monarchy, and govern the nation themfelves. This 
glafs is to be feen in the King's palace to this day. 

As for Henry IV's fecond wife, it is faid he never 
enjoyed a peaceable hour with her, but when fhe was 
afleep. They often fought together, and Hie fpared 
not, fometimes, to beat and fcratch him, even in his 
bed, fo that he has been forced to quit the field, and 
take fanctuary in another chamber. This Prince 
was taxed with ingratitude towards his moft faith- 
ful fervants, and want of liberality to all. It was a 
common faying of his predeceflbr Henry III, * that 

• he fhared his kingdom with his loyal fervants and 

* friends.' But Henry IV. loved not to part with 
any thing which he could handfomely keep. 

Yet he was very obliging to his miftrefTes, and 
his paffion for them carried him into many irregu- 
larities. He was fo deeply inamoured of one, that, 
to enjoy her, he iigned a promife of marriage to her 
with his own blood, which one of his favourites 
feeing, tore the paper in pieces. The King, being 
incenied at that, fwore by the belly of St. Oris, an 
ordinary oath with him, that this perfcn was mad. 
1 Yes,' replied he, ' but I wilh I were the only mad- 
4 man in the kingdom.' Thereby refle£Hng on the 
King's extravagancy. Another time he gave fifty 
thoufand crowns for one night's enjoyment of a 

I have many years ago fpoke cf the death of this. 
Prince, in my letters to the Minifters of the Porte. 
Now I will acquaint thee with one circumitance, 
to which I w 7 as the/i a ftranger. 

It happened, that the Viceroy of Navarre was 
walking with fevtral Nobles in the meadows of 



Beam, a town under his jurifdiòtion waihed by the 
river Pau. When, on a fudden, all the cows (of 
which there was a great number in thofe fields) ran 
violently into the river, and were there drowned. 
The Viceroy, being aftonifhed at this, as at a prodi- 
gy, writ down the day and hour when it happened, 
which proved exactly the very fame time, to a mi- 
nute, when Henry IV. was {tabbed in his coach by 
Ravaillac; as the Viceroy was foon cercified, by 
difpatches which he received from the Court, con- 
taining intelligence of that tragedy. 

All this may be pure chance, for aught I knew ; 
but there are abundance of fymptoms of fomething 
elfe. As for man, he is wholly a ftranger to him- 
felf, and the fecret operations of his own foul are 
hid from him. How then can he know the natures 
of other things, or be familiarly acquainted with the 
occult difpofitions of beafts ? The leaft worm or in- 
fect baffles our fevereft fcrutiny, and we are left in 
the fpcculation of their embryo's. The meft filent 
and inanimate beings proclaim aloud the folly of our 
bcaited fcience : Every atom in nature ridicules our 
belt philofophy. Who then will pretend to unrid- 
dle the more uncommon myiteries of Providence, or 
trace the footfteps of eternal Deftiny ? Hiftorians 
fpeak varioufly of this parricide. Some fay the vil- 
lain was approved of at the Court of Rome, and 
that he was there ranked among the martyrs. It is 
certain he underwent as horrible a death as the wit 
of man could invent, to punifh his matchlefs trea- 
fon. And, it feems, the Judges that examined him 
were either afraid or afhamed to divulge what they 
heard from his mouth : Obliging themfelves, by an 
oath, to eternal fecrecy. Ravaillac him felf owned 
that he had twice before attempted to kill the King, 
but was thruit back by one of his Nobles, who fuf- 
pected fome ill defign in his looks. 

Sage Hamet, May God preferve our glorious Sul- 
tan from the rage of mutineers, from a Jewifh phy- 
fician, and from the common difaflers of human 




life. And the care of his attendants will prevent 
the fudden ftrokes of a defperate afiaffin, 

Paris, 15th of the 8th Moon, 
©f the Year 1660. 


To Muflapha, Berber Aga. 

THIS city is now as full of noife and lights, 
as fome cities of Afta are at an eclipfe of the 
moon, or as Conftantinople is during the faft of 
Ramazan. It is near midnight, and yet here is fuch 
a medley of noifes, compounded of the loud accla- 
mations of mortals, the ringing of bells, beat of 
drums, found of trumpets, and other muiical in- 
ftruments, with the thunder of fky-rockets, guns, 
and other fire- works, that a body would think one's 
felf in a battle or a fiege. 

The cccafion of all this is the publick entry of 
the new-married King and Queen, it being the firit 
time they have feen Paris fince the nuptials. Nei- 
ther my tongue or pen are able to exprefs, to the life, 
the inimitable pomp and magnificence that have ap- 
peared to-day in the royal train, and in the prepara- 
tions which the city made to receive them. The 
luftre of gold, filver, and precious ftones, dazzled 
one's eyes from all parts, and I could have wifhed 
for a Mufiulman army, to have been at the plunder 
of fuch immenfe riches. Yet there v/ere forty thou- 
fand of the citizens, the King's guards in arms, to 
augment the glory of the day. 

The Monarch, with his royal Spoufe, appeared 
feated on a majeftick throne, all glittering with gold 
and diamonds. It was raifed on high, and there 
were feveral fteps, or degrees, to afcend up to it. 
On thefe were placed the Princes of the Blood, the 
Dukes and Peers of the realm, with other Grandees 



and Nobles, as alfo PrincefTes, DuchefTes, and La- 
dies of the firft Quality. 

It was at the foot of this throne there were made 
innumerable fpeeches, and congratulatory addredes 
by the priefls and monks of all orders, by the flu- 
dents in the Academy, and by the feveral compa- 
nies of tradefmen. But, that which is molt furpri- 
fing, a certain ftrange maid uttered feveral orations 
in Latin, Greek, French, and Spanifh, wherein 
fhe magnified the King's heroick undertakings, his 
wonderful fuccelfes, and great wifdom and courage, 
with other virtues, which fhe made the fubjeci of 
her panegyrick. She alfo no left extolled the Queen's 
matchlefs beauty, the greatnefs of her birth, the 
royal endowments of her mind ; and concluded with 
reflecting on the joy of all Europe, for this illuf- 
trious match, and alliance of two of the moil po- 
tent Crowns in Chriftendom. 

She delivered herfelf with fuch an incomparable 
grace and modefty, as drew the eyes and ears of all 
that were prefent. And it is faid the King was ex- 
tremely pleafed with her ; much more the Queen, 
who had never before encountered fo learned a fe- 

The French Ladies have for many years applied 
themfelves to the ftudy of languages and philoiophy. 
But it is not fo in Spain, where the men are too ri- 
gorous to the fair, to allow them that liberty. They 
are as mcrofe to women as the Moors, from whom a 
great pr.rc of that nation are faid to defcend. Every 
country in Europe has fufTered mighty changes by 
the incurfions and conquefts of the Moors, Goths, 
Huns, and Vandals. So that it is too difficult to 
trace the original of any people in fuch a hotch- 
potch of foreign blocd : Neither have they any care 
of their genealogies, as we Arabians have in the 

Illuftrious Aga, though it fignifies nothing to 
fpring of a noble ftock, unlefs we inherit the vir- 
tues of our ancerlors, as well as their fplendid titles 
and eflates, yet it is both profitable and pkafant to 



have by us a regifler of our families, that, reading 
their characters and heroick actions, we may imi- 
tate their examples, and add -to the glory of the 
tribe from which wadefcend. 

Paris, 26th of the 8th Moon, 
of ihe Year >66o. 


To Dgnet Oglou. 


KNOW not whether I fhall fmifli the letter I 
begin ; or, if I do, whether it will be above 

f round, or in the bowels of the earth. However, 
cannot forbear writing to thee, my dear friend, 
though both the paper and I, with the houfe where- 
in I lodge, and ail this beautiful city, may, for 
aught I know, be tranfported to another region be- 
fore morning. Nay, it is poilible this very hour 
may people Eiyfium with a new colony from France, 
and Paris may defcend with all her magnificent pa- 
laces to the fhades below, changing the banks cf the 
river Seine for thofe of Acheron or Styx, and the 
refrefhing airs of Champagne for the choking ful- 
phurs of hell. In a word, we have felt the terrible 
menaces of an earthquake this evening ; but, as yet, 
we have fufFered no damage. 

When I lived in Afia, an earthquake was almcft 
as common as the yearly revolution cf a fummer 
and winter : And we took as little notice of it as we 
did of lightning, hail, or rain. Befides, one Muf- 
iulman encouraged another, and the general faith 
of True Believers confirmed us all, that we ought 
to be refigned to God, and to the appointment of 
eternal Deftiny, whether it were for pleafure or pain, 
good or evil, life or death. But, now, I have been 
ib long difufed to thofe convulfions of the globe (for 
I have not felt one above thefe two-and-twenty 



years) and am a!fo feparated from the Society of the 
Faithful, that I am become like the reft of the 
world, and even, like thefe Infidel?, timorous, aito- 
nifhed, void of reafon, and of little or no faith. 

My mind at firft daggered as much as my body, 
when I was walking acrofs my chamber, and felt 
the floor rock under me with that fingular kind of 
motion, which no human art or force can imitate. 
I foon concluded it was an earthquake, but knew 
not how to bear that thought with indifference. 
Death is familiar to me in any other figure, but that 
of being (o furprifingly buried alive. It appeared 
horrible to fink on a fudden into an unknown grave, 
I knew not whither : Perhaps I might fall into fome 
dark lake of water ; or, it may be, I might be drench- 
ed in a river of fire, or be darned on a rock : For 
who can tell the difpofition of the caverns below, 
or what fort of apartments we mall find under the 
furface of the earth ? We walk on the battlements 
of a marvellous ftructure, a globe full of tremendous 
fecrets ! And, whether nature or deftiny, Providence 
or chance, occafion the ruptures that we find are made 
in divers parts of the earth, it matters not much, 
fo long as we are in danger of tumbling in. Such a 
terrible fall would put the bell: philofopher in the 
world out of humour, and fpoil all his reafoning. I 
am fure it would vex me, thus, in a trice, to be 
plundered of my thoughts : Which makes me either 
wonder at the vanity of Empedocles, if he threw 
himfelf into the flaming chafm of mount iEtna, 
only for the fake of being elteemed a God (as the 
common report is -,) or give me reafon to conclude 
he had fome other end in his venturous leap, fince 
it is not probable, that empty fame mould be edeemed 
by that great Sage, as his final happinefs. A much 
eafier way had Ariftotle, who, d fgufted at his ig- 
norance of the flux and reflux of the fea, threw him- 
felf in, to put an end to his difquifitions, if the ffo- 
ry be true. But I can hardly believe the Stagvrite 
was fuch a fool. I guefs of other men, according 
to the experience I have of myfdf. I am as little 



follicitous about death as any man ; yet I mould be 
unwilling to hurl myfelf out of the world headlong, 
without a firm or a tefta. I love new experiments, 
but am not very fond of fuch as take from us irre- 
coverably the means of trying any more. 

We had news here of an earthquake which has 
overthrown part of the Pyrenasan mountains, fome 
days before this happened at Paris ; but few regard- 
ed it. Calamities at a diftance frighten no-body : 
Yet thofe which we feel put us all in tears. For 
my part, it has this effect upon me, that I am im- 
proved in my carelefsnefs, and become fearful of 
nothing. And, I think, there is reafon on my fide, 
fince all my care, apprehenfion, and foreeaft, can 
never defend me from the underminings of the Om- 

Paris, 1 5th of the nth Moon, 
of the Year 1660. 


To Hamet, Reis Effendi, Principal Secretary 
of the Ottoman Empire. 

LET not the diftance of time between my let- 
ters prompt thee to conclude I forgot my duty ; 
or that I am carelefs to oblige foilluftrious a friend. 
I have many obligations to difcharge, and therefore 
endeavour to hufband my hours to the befl: advan- 
tage, and foto divide my difpatches, that the Grand 
Signior may be ferved, the Divan informed of all 
material emergencies, and the expectations of each 
Minifter gratified. 

As to the reign of Lewis XIII, it was fnared {uc- 
ceffively between the Marmai d' Ancre, the Duke of 
Luines, and Cardinal Richlieu. The firft was the 
Queen - Mother's favourite ; the fecond was the 
King's ; as for the third, he was abfolute Matter 
both of the King, Queen, and kingdom. 



During the King's minority indeed, Queen Ma- 
ry de Medicis, the relic! of Henry IV, took the re- 
gency into her own hands, and managed things in 
an arbitrary manner. But the Princes of the Biood, 
with other Grandees, not able to brook the govern- 
ment of a woman, confpired againft her. Among 
thefe were the Prince of Conde, father to the pre- 
fent Prince, and the Duke of Bouillon. The for- 
mer was a bold man, and durit do any thing that 
was brave: The latter was a cunning Statefman. 

They caballed not fo privately, but the Queen- 
Mother was acquainted with their meeting, and the 
Duke of Bouillon was the firil who knew his party 
was betrayed. This intelligence was brought him 
from afiured hands, whilff he was fitting with the 
Prince of Conde and other Nobles at the place of 
their private rendezvous. Whereupon he acquaint- 
ed them with it, exhorting all to abfcond immedi- 
ately, left, they fhould be feized on the fpot. But, 
they retorting, that the Queen would not venture 
on an action of fuch dubious'confequence, he ftart- 
ed up, and took his leave of them with thefe words : 
'* My Lords, you may follow your own counfel. 
" I will immediately to horfe, and efcape to Sedan in 
* ; my {lockings : Where, if they make me wear out 
" a pair as an exile, by Heavens, I will make them 
•' wear out a thoufand pair of boots." 

His words came to pais, and the effect was a di- 
minutive civil war ; when the Queen was forced to 
raife an army to reduce this Prince to obedience, the 
reft of his party being imprifoned, as foon as me 
heard of his flight. 

Whilft thefe diiturbances lafted, the Moors were 
expelled out of Spain, to the number of fix hun- 
dred thoufand. Part of thole who lived towards 
the maritime coafts went by fea into Africa. The 
reir, whole refidence was farther within land, fought 
a paffage over the Pyrenaean mountains, and fo 
through the fouthern provinces of France ; offer- 
ing a ducat a head to the Viceroy of Navarre, for 
their fafe conduci. He, out of curiolity, coming 



to fee thefe travellers, and beholding them ragged 
and almoft naked, with vifages like ghofts, took pi- 
ty on them, and gave them a liberty of pafTage gra- 
tis ; faying, " God forbid I mould extort fo much 
u money from thefe miferable wretches, who are 
" abandoned to the wide world." 

But, it fecms, his companion was needlefs. For 
thefe Mufiulmen were too cunning for him, having 
their fqualid, torn garments quilted all over with 
gold and precious ilones. Which occafioned all 
people to ridicule the Viceroy's eafinefs, and to call 
him the friend of the Gibeonites. 

I mould appear too partial in reflecting fatyrically 
on this Prince, whofe generofity deferves praife : 
Yet, I cannot but fmile at the craft of the Moors, 
whereby they not only efcaped paying the accuf- 
tomed tributes of paflengers, but alio blinded thefe 
Infidels, and took from them the fufpicion of great- 
er riches ; which, if they had once known, perhaps 
not a Moor mould have carried a piece of money 
along with him into Africa. 

This paffage feemed worthy of thy knowledge, 
fince it in part refembles the famous departure of 
thelfraelites out of Egypt, though it comes fhort of 
the robbery and plunder which they committed on 
the inhabitants the day before they began their jour- 
ney. However, this ftory may afford thee fome di- 
verfion . 

As to the Marfhal d' Ancre, the Queen's favou- 
rite, in his life and death, he was compared to Se- 
janus, being qualified with the like virtues and 
vices, and having much the fame fortune ; his bo- 
dy, after having been dragged about the flreets by 
the rabble, was at laft torn to pieces. 

If thou wouldefl know how the Duke of Luines 
obtained the King's favour, it was by ingratitude. 
For, when he and his brother were firit brought to 
Court, they were both fo poor, that ,they had but 
one cloke between them, and for that reafon could 
not go abroad together. Yet, being recommended 
to the King, by a certain Nobleman, for excellent 



falconers, they were received into favour. But they 
the kindneft of their patron; and, infinu- 
ating malicious things into the King's ear, againft 
the nan and his family, caufed him to be ba- 

nohed from the Court, after which they managed 
all things. 

Then fucceeded Cardinal Richlieu in the chief 
Miniilry ; erf whom I ha-, : :a;d a great deal in my 
former letters to the Grandees of the Porte ; anà 
thou wil them in the regifter. I v.'ill now add, 

what I never m: before, that he was very 

a good Judge of verfe. He 
gave to one poet, for a witty conceit on his coat of 
alms, two thou land fequlns, though it was but a 
verfe of feven words. . Another he promoted to an 
-ecclefiafiicr.l dignity worth a thoufand a year, for 
comparing him to the Primum Mobile. "But, he 
caufed a third to be kicked out cf doors, for his ob- 
ftinacy, in denying to alter a word of his poem, 
which the Cardinal diiliked. 

ThisMinifter was very revengeful, and, among:! 
other erre J.: of his temper, none was more taken 
notice of, or reflected on, than the death of Mon- 
ile ur de rhou, whom the Cardinal cut off for no 
other rcafon, but becaufe his father, in a General 
Hi; :ch he wrote, had rep relented one of 

Richlieu's r.:;;:: 1 :r 5 1 and 

abominable figure. That hiitorian was the renown- 
ed Thuanus, of whom 1 fuppofe thou haft heard. 

As to King Lewis XIII. himfelf, bewasefteem- 
ed a gr r; accuftomed to carefs thofe 

with more than ordinary endearments, whom he de- 
signed fu to ruin : Whence it grew to a pro- 
verb, in his time, at the French Court, when they 
faw any Nobleman mailed on, to (ay, ' His bufinefs 
c is done.' It cannot be denied that this Prince had 
a gr :ome wifdom ; yet he was obferved 
to take delight in many petty actions unbecoming 
-roy: ty. He would fpend much cf his time 
in painting, and fend for the moft famous Matters 
ki that art to view his works. An equal inclination 



he fhewed to muficlc : And fometimes he was am- 
bitious to be thought a good cook. Once he made 
a great party with his own hands, filling it with ve- 
ni Ion only fit for the mouths of Infidels, viz. the 
flefh of dogs, wolves, and foxes, with other abomi- 
nable animals, of which it is not lawful for a True 
Believer to tafte. This he caufed to be ferved up 
to table^ at a feafl which he made to fome of his 
Courtiers, who, to honour the King's handy- work, 
eat greedily of the horrid difh, and highly praifed 
his (kiJI; whilft he diverted himfelf with la gh- 
ing at them. He had many fuch freak? as thefe, 
which rendered him contemptible and ridiculous to 
the Grandees of his kingdom. In a word, he was 
more reverenced abroad than at home. And this 
was owing to the conduci of Cardinal Richlieu, 
who was juftly efteemed the very genius of Fn ..ce. 

Illuitrious Miniirer. all that I have faid of 
-Monarch fpeaks him but a man : And no-body 
is wife at all times. But the follies of Princes are 
more confpicucus, than thofe of meaner perfons. 

Paris, 1 5th of the 1 2th Moon, 
of the Year 1660. 

To Mahummed, in the Defart. 

Ti /T A Y the Angel of peace pitch his pavilion at 
VX the entrance of that bleilèd cave where thou 
refideit. May thy foul feel calm and undiiturbed 
joys, and for ever repofe in divine tranquillity ; 
whilft the reft of the world are moleited with perpe- 
tual cares and fears, broils and enmities, paffions 
within, and furies without : In a word, whihtthey 
are always in danger of one another, of themfelves, 
and of the elements which compound their nature. 

O man, 


O man, highly beloved of God, favourite of the 
r.ngels, care of Heaven, and the fingular darling of 
Providence ! the palm of an Almighty hand is ex- 
tended under thee when thou fitteft down or walkeft, 
always ready to fnatch thee up from the calamities 
which threaten this lower world, and lift thee to 
Paradife, where the Aflembly of the Juft wait for 
thy prefence. 

There has been an earthquake lately in thefe parts, 
which has put all France into a great confirmation, 
aftonifhed every body, and increafed the thought- 
t ulnefs of the wife. The firft effects of it were felt 
by the inhabitants of the Pyrenees, which are cer- 
tain mountains dividing France and Spain. There 
it did great mifchief ; overwhelming ibme medicinal 
baths, many houfes, and deitroying hundreds of 
people. Only one mofque or church, which funk 
into the caverns below, was thrown up again, and 
flands very firm, but in another place. This is 
looked upon as a great miracle, efpecially by the 
French, who, for aught I know, may cenfure par- 
tially, favouring their own intereft, in regard this 
church has been deputed between them and the Spa- 
niards, each nation claiming a right to it, and (land- 
ing before exactly on the frontier line. But now 
their quarrel is inconteftably decided, for it is re- 
moved, by this convulfion of the globe, near half a 
league from its former fituation, which is fo far 
within the acknowledged limits of France. This 
the French priefts magnify as an apparent proof of 
the juftice of their pretentions, and the people feem 
very willing to believe it. 

As for me, I have another opinion of earthquakes, 
and am perfuaded, that they are as natural as the 
winds, which no man knows how to draw into any 
party or fafhion, unlefs we believe the itories of the 
Lapland witches. I am perfuaded that this globe is 
much more ancient than the generality of mankind 
imagine it to be ; that it has undergone various 
changes by the predominance' of fire and water : 
And that it is now haftening towards another re- 


volution. I believe the central fire .has eaten iti 
way alinoli to the furface, and kindled all the mines 
of iulphur and other inflammable matter, which -it 
meets within its circular afcent. Thefe, corroding 
and daily confuming their own vaults, approaching 
-alio fbmetimes too near the v aft receptacles of fub- 
terranean waters which lie nearer the furface, aver- 
heat the lakes ; which, being thus rarefied into va- 
pours and pent up in the hollow of the globe, ffrh e 
to break forth with immenfe violence, which caufes 
that heaving and rocking of the fuperficies, that fo 
terrifies mortals. But then the caufe is very deep 
and far from us. For, where the furface is mallow, 
in fuch paflions of the globe, the earth csmmonly 
breaks and tumbles in, with whatlbever is upon it, 
Nay, whole cities fometimes have been thus fwal- 
lowed up. And the danger is eafily foreknown by 
a fhort fnatching and trepidation of the ground, 
houfes, trees, men, and everything within its reach ; 
for then the convulfion is generally fatal. But, wheie 
the motion is heavy, grave, and regular, it is a fign 
that both the fource and the danger of it are far off. 
And this is fo much the more evident by how much 
farther the earthquake is felt above ground. For, 
the nearer any fuch paflion happens to the center, 
it muft be granted, that its force is extended the 
wider on the circumference. This depends on a 
mathematical demonftration, and there needs no 
more be faid to thee, who art confummate in the 

What I efteeni a due reflection on this is, that, 
though there be no peril in thefe remote earthquakes, 
yet we know not how foon they will come nearer to 
us ; neither can we be affured where or when they 
will happen, or how far they will reach. It follows 
therefore, by a natural confequence, that, fince 
thefe things sre unavoidable, and all the wit of man 
cannot invent a means to efcape finking into the 
bowels of the earth where it breaks in, we ought to 
be carelefs and indifferent what death we die, and 

Vol. VI. D only 


■only folli-citous to live like men, that is, according to 
reafon. For, whether our fouls furvive or no, it 
*vill be comfortable to expire in peace, and full of 
our own innocence. 

Puis, 5th of the 1 zth Mood, 
e£ the Year 1660. 

The End of the Firft Book. 





■ ' ■■ " ■ ■ ■ ■■ ... n i. i.. »^ 



To the Venerable Mufti. 

HERE is now like to be a great change -at this 
Court. Cardinal Mazarine is dead. He died 
at the caftle of the wood of Vincennes, on the ninth 
of this moon, having been lick a long time. There 
happened a great -fire at the Louvre, (fo they call ihe 
King's palace in this city) about five weclcs ago, 
which obliged the Cardinal, who lodged there at 
that time, to remove to his own houfe. From 
whence, for the fake of the air, he was ad vi fed by 
his phyficians to go to the aforefaid caftle : But all in 
vain : For Death, which finds accefs into the ftrong- 
eft fortrefles, purfued him thither, and led him in tri- 
umph to the regions of filence and forgetfulnefs, who 
•made io great a noife and bufile in this our world. 

It is reported, that a certain aftrologer foretold 

aim he fhould die in this moon. But the Cardinal 

D a gave 


gave no credit to h'm : Though, one would think 
he had fome rcafon to believe him in this, for the 
linee -of a former prediction of his concerning the 
Duke of Beaufort. I have mentioned this Prince, 
and thz enmity that was between Mazarine and 
him, which occaiioned the Duke's imprifonment in 
the cattle of the wood of Vincennes. During his 
reftraint, the before-mentioned altrologer gave it 
rut in Paris that the Duke fhould efcape out of pri- 
ibn precifely on fuch a day. The Cardinal, being 
informed of this, waited till the day came, defin- 
ing to punifh the affrologer as a cheat, or, at leali, 
to ex pole him as an ignorant peribn. To which 
end he fent for him, and, upbraiding him with pre- 
sumption and folly, in that the day was now come, 
and yet the Duke of Beaufort was ftill a prifoner, 
without any hopes, or fcarce a poffibility of efcaping, 
ordered him to be ient to the Ballile. But the al- 
trologer, addreffing himfelf with much fubmimon 
and earneitnefs, fpoke to this effect : * May it pleafe 

* your Eminence only to refpite my fentence till to- 

* morrow, and then hang me if you do not find that 

* I have fpoke truth. The day which I foretold is 

* come indeed, but it is not palE A courier will 

* foon convince you that I have not ftudied this fci- 

* enee in vain.' The Cardinal, moved with thefe 
words, only confined the aflrologer in a chamber of 
his own palace. And the next day he received an 
exprefs which gave him an account of the Duke's 
efcape, and the manner of it, viz. that, on the day 
before, he had let himfelf down by a ladder of ropes 
into the cafrle-ditch, and was no more to be feen 
or heard of. Thus the aflrologer efcaped the Car- 
dinal's revenge, and got much fame at the Court, 
which was increafed by the Cardinal's death fall- 
ing out exactly according to his prediction. 

This Minifter was a very fubtle man j and Car- 
dinal Richlieu ufed to fay of him, ' that, if he were 

* minded to put a trick on the devil, he would only 

* fet Mazarine to work.' Therefore he made him 
his confidant, inflructed him in all the fecrets of 



the French Court, the art of government ; and, on 
his death-bed, recommended him to the King, a* 
the fitteli man to fucceed him in the management of 
the publick. He was, after the death of Lewis- 
XIII, at firft oppofed by feveral Grandees ; but the 
Queen's authority, and that of the Prince of Conde, 
fupported him : Whence arofe a common proverb 
in thofe days, ' The Queen permits all, the Cardi- 
c nal commands all, and the Prince puts all in exe- 

* cution : For this laft had the office of General.' 

This Minifter was not efteemed fo covetous as his 
predeccfibr ; yet he heaped up vaft treafurcs • part 
of which he beftowed in magnificent buildings and 
furniture ; the reft he fent into Italy to his father - y 
who, aftoniihed at the prodigious quantities cf gold 
he received, ufed to fay, ' Sue it rains money in 
1 France !' However, he made himfelf odious to the 
fubjeCts of this nation by his continual oppreflions ; 
and they are glad he is gone. 

It is a bye-word at Rome, when any Pope dies, to 
fay, * Now the dog is dead, all his malice is buried 

* with him.' But 1 doubt it will not prove true irk 
the Court of France at this juncture. For the King 
will either find a Minifter equal in fubtlety to th-e 
deceafed Cardinal, who fhall fupply his place ; or he 
will take the adminiftration of affairs into his own. 
hands. Be it which way it will, we are like to fee 
the fame maxims purfued, fo long as Cardinal Rich- 
lieu's memoirs are in being, who firft taught this 
Crown to underftand its own ftrength. 

Pari?, 14th of the 3d Moon, 
of the Year 1661. 

D 3 LET- 



To the Vizir Azem, at the Porte. 

I HAVE fent a difpatch to the Muftij acquainting 
him with the death of Cardinal Mazarine, Firit 
Minifter of State, and the greateff. favourite that 
ever lived. Now I will inform thee of fome paffa- 
ges which I omitted in my letter to that venerable 
Prelate. It is neceffary for me thus to diftribute my 
intelligence, with a due refpcct to the different qua* 
iityof my fuperiors.. 

Thou, I fuppofe, will require fome account of 
his difpofition and morals, with fuch a character as 
may render this great genius familiar to thy know- 

He feemed to place his chief happinefs in aggran- 
diilng his Mafter, whom he ferved with a zeal fo 
pure and difinterefted, a loyalty fo incorruptible, and 
by fuch regular methods of prudence and policy, as 
if 3 in his days, nothing were to be accounted virtue- 
or vice, but what either favoured or oppofed the King 
of France's interefr. He was of a happy conftitution 
for a Courtier, being by nature debonnair, compiai- 
fant, affable, and of a fweet deportment. Yet experi- 
ence and art taught him to improve thefe advantages 
to the height of aiilimulation. Ycu fhould fee cour- 
tefy and extraordinary goodnefs flowing into every 
feature of his face ; you lhould hear words breathing 
from his mouth, like the foft benedictions of an an- 
gel. Yet, at the fame time, his heart gave the lye 
to both. He meant nothing lefs than that a man 
fhould find him as good as his word. He was ever 
ready to promife any thing that was demanded of 
him : But, in performance, flow and full of excufes ; 
frugal of his Prince's money, and liberal of his own : 
jMagnihcent in his buildings and the furniture be- 
longing to them; aiming in all things to exceed 
other men, his equals ; and, in fome, to furpafs even 



mighty Princes, his Superiors. In a word, he was 
accomplifhed with all qualifications requifite in ar 
fortunate Courtier and a good Statefman. 

Yet, after all, this fublime genius yielded to 
death: But not like common mortals. He died al- 
together like himfelf, without fo much as changing 
that fettled gravity and ferene air of his face, which 
has been remarkable during his life. He made the 
King heir of his eftate, and bequeathed abundance 
of legacies. 

To fay ail in brief : If he was great in his life, he 
was much more fo in his death ; mingling his laft 
breath with the fighs and tears of the King, who 
lamented his departure with the mourning of a fos 
for a father. 

Paiis, 26th of the 3d Moon, 
©f the Year 1661. 


To Pefleli Hali,. his Brother, Mafter of the 
Cuftoms at Conftantinople. 

YEfterday a difpatch came to my hand from & 
very remote part of the earth. Our coufin 
Jfouf fent it from Aitracan, a famous city for traf- 
fick, formerly belonging to the Crim Tartars, but 
now in poffeincn of the Alufcovites. He has bezn 
there a confiderable time, finding profit by mer- 
chandife : For there is a vaft refort to that city from 
China, Indoftan, Perfia, Mufcovy, and other pro - 
vinces of Europe and Afia. The roads to it are 
daily covered with the caravans of trading people. 
And the river Volga can hardly fuftain the innume- 
rable multitude of vefTels that tranfport pafiengers,. 
with their goods, backwards and forwards between 
Aftracan and the regions round about the Cafpian 
fea, into which that mighty river difcha'ges itfelf. 
D 4 Ifouf 


Ifoufrs ingenious, and has pitched upon fome ad- 
vantageous way of inriching himfelf, which tempt* 
him to take up his abode in that city, and there end 
his travels, or, at leali:, he will repofe himfelf there 
till Fortune prefents him with a fairer opportunity 
of increaung his wealth. 

In the mean time, I perceive by his letter that he 
gets money apace, and lives happily, and has the 
wit to keep himfelf free from the yoke of marriage^ 
which imbarrafied him lo much formerly. He foon 
put that troublefome wife out of hi? mind, after he 
had divorced her ; and he never failed to gratify 
himfelf with new amours, wherever he came in his 
travel?» He writes very comically, and I cannot for- 
bear fmrling, when he tells me he has had as many 
concubines as the Grand Signior. By which thou 
wilt perceive that Ifouf is much addicted to gallan- 
try. He frankly confeiTes that he ftrft learned this 
mode of loving at large in Perfia, efpecially at I fa- 
nali ; where, he fays, it is a mark of honour for a 
man to be good at intriguing with the Ladies : And 
he is called a Turk, by way of difgrace, who fre- 
quents not every evening the gardens and houies of 
pieafure in the iuburbs. But he adds, that, in In- 
dia, the liberty of. courting women is much greater. 
And that the very nature of that climate difpofesa 
man to this loft pafliom In a word, our amorous 
kinfman retains the lame humour Itili. 

Vet this does not hinder him from profcctitinghis 
nccefliry affairs with diligence and alacrity. He 
dfpatcbed a bufmefs forme at Archangel inRufiia, 
and another at Mofcow, very dextroufly ; which 
convinces me, that he is notlefs fedulous and caie- 
ful in things which concern himfelf. He fays the 
Muscovites are the greateft drunkards in the world. 
Their chief and moft beloved liquor is what the 
French call ' the water of life.' It is a chymical 
drink extracted from the lees of wine, or other ftrong 
beverages : Such as thou knoweft is common among 
the Greeks, Armenians, and Franks, in the Levant. 
When the Muscovites are once got into a houfe 



where this nettar is fold, and area little warmed and 
elevated with it, they will not depart till all their 
money is gone : Nay, they will pawn their very 
garments from their backs in a frolick, rather than 
want their dofe of this inebriating ftuff, and go out 
ftark naked in the coldeft weather, that is, fall afleep 
in the open ftreets, and yet are never the worfe for 
it when they awake, but go to their daily work with 
the greater ardor. For it is only the common people 
are guilty of this extravagance. As for the Gentry 
and Nobility, they are more clofe and referved in 
their drunken debauches. 

The Mufcovites, according to the character he 
gives of them, are a very rude and unpolifhed people ; 
iurly to one another, and extremely rugged to ftran- 
gers. They defpife all other nations m the world, 
and fay it is impoilible for any man to go to heaven 
who has not a Mufcovite foul in him. They pro- 
fefs the Chriftian religion, and were formerly of the 
Greek Church ; but now they have feparated them- 
felves, and fet up a Patriarch of their own ; to 
whom fo great a veneration is paid, that the Empe- 
ror himfelf holds his ftirrup, when he mounts on_ 

Brother, I defire thee to fpeak advantageoufly of 
Ifouf to the illuftrious Kerker HafTan, and to the 
other Baffa's of the Bench. He will be a ferv ice- 
able man to the Grand Signior, if encouraged by 
fome place of honour and profit. I wifh I couli 
fay the fame of our coufin Solyman. But he is too 
wife in his own conceit. 

Dear Pefteli, excufemy abruptnefs ; for my hours 
are divided between the fervice I owe to the Sultan 
and the affection I bear my friends. 

Paiis, 7th of the 5th Moorij 
of the Year 1661. 

D 5 LET- 



To Orchan Cabet, Student in the Sciences* 
and Pennoner to the Sultan. 

I HAVE heard of thy fame and the manner of thy 
converfionto the law brought down from heaven : 
How that, from a Chriftian rrieft, thou art become 
a MufTulman Abdalla, that is, a believer and fervant 
of the true God. May thy reward both here and 
hereafter be according to thy integrity in this change 
of faith and religion : For hypocrites are neither 
acceptable to God nor man ; yet moil men are pro- 
felyted for intereft, fear, or other human regards. 
And, in the fenfe of theChriftians, thou know eft a 
renegado and a villain are reciprocal terms. 

The infupportable miferies of fervitude tempt 
many to embrace circumcifion, which at once fets 
them free, and often puts them in a condition to 
mend their fortunes, and live more happily than 
thev did, even before they were captives : Whilft 
ambition and avarice are prevailing motives with 
others in more profperous circumftances to be of 
the Grand Signior's religion, that fo they may rife 
jn his favour, and obtain fome confiderable prefer- 
ment at the Court, or office in the army ; like the 
ancient Melchites among the Chriftians, who were 
fo called, becaufe they always profefled the faith of 
the Grecian Emperor, without examining whether 
it was orthodox or no. A fort of religious parafites, 
who would be any thing to ferve their own intereft, 
and adore the Devil himfelf, provided their Sove- 
reign fhewed them an example. 

Yet, after all, there are fome who change their 
religion in pure fincerity, only compelled thereto 
by the dint of exalted reafon and motives of virtue. 
Such as thefe are thinking men, perfons of bold fpi- 
rits, who dare call in queftion the traditions of their 
fathers, examine the principles in which they were 
5 educated, 


educated, difpute every thing, and bring all to the 
ftandard of natural truth. 

I rejoice to hear that thou art one of this charac- 
ter, and not in the number of counterfeits and bi- 
gots : For each bring no credit to the religion they 
embrace, but rather a fcandal. Yet the arms of the 
munificent Porte are open to receive all that profefs 
that God is one, and that Mahomet is his apoftle ; 
leaving the fcrutiny of their intention to him who 
fearches the heart. 

Thy learning gives thee fair opportunities of do- 
ing good. Put it to a right ufe. Convince the In- 
fidels, whom thou haft forfaken, of their errors ; 
confirm the True Believers in the faith without 

Do this by difcourfe, by writing, and thine own 
exemplary life, which lafr. will prevail above ten 
thoufand eloquent fermons. 

In a word, mew thyfelf a true and faithful fol- 
lower of the Prophet on earth, and God will tranf- 
late thee to his company inParadife ; where Mofes 
will introduce thee, Jefus will entertain thee with 
joy, and all the 124,000 Prophets will welcome thee 
to the pleafures which know no end.. 

Paris, a 1 ft of the 5th Moon, 
of die Year 1661. 



To the Mufti. 

E are apt to admire fome ftrange paffages 
which we find recorded in ancient hiftory, 
and whofe truth is out of the reach of any mortal to 
prove : Yet we flight the miracles which are before 
our eyes, evident matters of fact which nobody can 
contradict. Whence this fhould proceed, I know 
not ; unlefs it be from a natural kind of drovdinefs 
in the foul, common to the greateft part of men ; 
D 6 like 


like the fleep of thole who cannot fo foon be awa- 
kened by the loudeft noife they are accuflomed to r 
as by foft and ft: 11 ideas of a ftrange dream : So we 
regard not the things to which we are daily habitu- 
ated, though in thsmfelves never fo prodigious ; 
whilft we ftartle and are amazed at the moil ordina- 
ry relations of antiquity, only becaufe they are no- 
vel to us, and we were not eye-witnefTes of the things 

I formerly fent a letter to CaraHali, the Sultan's 
Phyfician, wherein I mentioned feveral phyficians 
of Arabia, who, in paft ages, were eminent for fome 
remarkable cures. But, 1 tell thee, not one of them 
could match the King of France's fuccefs in curing 
an epidemical diftemper, which they call the King's 
Evil. The general fymptoms of this malady are 
certain fwellings in the face, neck, or other parts of 
the body ; fometimes accompanied with blindnefs, 
-deafnefs, lamenefs, and other imperfections. Thofe 
who are troubled with this difeafe flock to the King's 
Court at certain feafons of the year, and, being 
introduted into his prefence, he only touches the 
part affected with his hand, and an infallible cure 

They fay this gift has been inherent in the Kings 
of France for many generations : The priefts mag- 
nify it as a great miracle. But, I tell thee, all the 
prodigy, in my opinion, lies in the ftrength of the 
people's imagination, which, thou knoweft, works 
half the cure, in many diftempers. The priefts Hand 
by the King, whilft he touches the fick : They re- 
peat their Gofpel, and ufe certain prayers and ex- 
orcifms, being vefted all in white like magicians. 
Thefe ceremonies are performed with abundance of 
gravity, which ftrikes an awe into the credulous pa- 
tients. And, to render the bufinefs yet more myf- 
terious, whereas other phyficians take money of the 
lick, this royal .rEfculapius beftows a piece of gold 
on every one whom he touches, which they are ob- 
liged to wear about their necks as long as they live. 
Now, whether the charm lies in the gold, or the 



King's touch, or the prayers and ceremonies of the 
priefts, or, finally, in the patient's fancy, it matters 
not much. This is certain, that thoufands who 
come to the King's feet, very much difordered by 
this evil, find a fenfible alteration in their bodies, 
before they depart from his prefence ; and in a few 
hours, or days at moft, are perfectly recovered. 

Perhaps, the Kings of France have fome magical 
or phyfical tincture in their blood. Or, it may be, 
they have found out the philofopher's ftone fo much 
talked of, and delivered it down to their pofterity, 
as a part of the royal inheritance ; which inables the 
prefent King to do fo many prodigious things both 
at home and abroad, in peace and in war, befides 
his part in curing this ficknefs. I am no Roficru- 
cian, nor very fond or credulous of miracles ; yet 
I often wonder at the treafures of this Monarchy 
which appear inexhauftible. But the ways of Kings 
are fecret, and he of France is fingular in his myite- 
rious ways of growing rich and great. Neither do 
all his magnificent expences feem to diminifh his 
wealth. The King of Sweden has been his pen- 
fioner ever fince he began to reign, and millions 
of French gold are difperfed among the German 

Thefe things caufe his fubje£is to defcant vari- 
oufly. But I refer them to thy oracular judgment, 
whofe fingle tefta is of ten thoufand times more 
worth than the decrees of a French Parliament. 

Paris, 3d of the 7th Moon, 
of the Year 1661. 




To Mirmadolin, Santone of the Vale of 
Si don. 

NO "W I will vent holy things, and what the 
Divinity fhall infpire. The world w r as in 
weeds when Hofain, the Prophet, was (lain, and 
the moon put on her mourning drefs. The timbrels 
of Perfia, Arabia, and Babylon were heard in the 
dead of the night : Their found reached to the third 
heaven : The fhepherds ran to the heights of the 
earth, to difcover the occafion of fo much noife. 
The centinels of forts and caftles gave the alarm, 
and the men of war took hold of the fv/ord, the 
bow, and the fpear. The Tygris overflowed its 
banks, and Diarbekir became a lake. A dark body 
of clouds overcaft the flcy, and poured forth thun- 
der, lightning, and hail. Fire ran all along on the 
fands of the* defarts, and the air was all in a flame. 
Horror poiiefTed the minds of mortals, and the an- 
gels themfelves were uneafy. The bear's of the fields 
ran into dens and caves, and the dragons were 
touched with remcrfe : Only the more venomous 
Kylilbafchi fwelled with pride : The poifon of 
murder and herefy had puffed up their fouls : They 
and their pofterity are accurfed to this day, and to 
the hour of the irrevocable fentence. 

O Santone, great is thy faith, in that thou hail: 
abandoned the madow of this world, and feparated 
thyfelf from the contagion of mortals ! I revere the 
majefty of thy fublime foul, thy intellect, ranging 
at liberty. Thou daily gathereft flowers from the 
garden of Eden, and, being in the body, enjcyeit the 
fweets of Paradife. Kings would lay down their 
crowns to tafte of thy pleafures, did they but know 
them ; and exchange all the glory of empires for 
©ne moment of thy unfpeakable blifs. Thou com- 
panion and care of angels, darling of the Monarch 



Wherever thou lieft down, whether by day, or by 
night, the watches above ftand ready with umbrel- 
la's to fkreen thee from the fcorching beams of the 
fun, the chilling darts of the moon and the ftars,, 
and from all injuries of weather. The elements go 
out of their courfes ter ferve thee, and all nature 
efpoufes thy intereft. 

The merchant hires a thoufand camels, and loads 
them with the choice!* riches of the Levant. He 
endures all the fatigue of a long and dangerous tra- 
vel through Syria, Arabia, and Perfia ; runs the 
rifque of robbers, difeafes, and ten thoufand me- 
thods of death : And, after all his hazards and' 
pains, is not half fo happy nor fo rich as thou, who- 
abounded in every thing, becaufe thou defireft no- 
thing which thou haft not, or that is unnecefTary.- 
The ploughmen labour for thee in the field, and fo 
do the artificers in the city. The Noble and the 
vulgar are thy purveyors, and the greateft Sove- 
reigns pay tribute to thee. Every houfe is thy home, 
and they count themfelves happy under whofe roof 
thou vouchfafeft to fleep. They are really fo ; for 
benediction accompanies the perfect, man in all his 
ways, and the favours of Heaven overtake them that 
fhew kindnefs to him. Thou art Lord of other 
men's eftates, and every man's field is thy inheri- 
tance. Thou enjoyeft the riches of the world, with- 
out being tainted with the vices that attend them ; 
and received immortal aflurances and feals ©f the 
future glory in the life which is to come. Oh hap- 
py eftate of the righteous ! Oh life to be truly en- 
vied ! 

As for me, I am like a galley-flave, chained down 
to the oar, and forced to row inceffantly whither 
the mafter of the vefTel commands : So am I obliged 
to obey the di&ates of my Superiors, whether there 
be fin in the cafe or no. I am faftened in the cares 
of this vain world, and the more particular anxie- 
ties of State. From all which thou art happily free. 

Oh that it were lawful for me to make off the 
fretting yoke, and difentangle myfelf from the fnares 



of human policy ! That I might live like the men 
of the ruff ages, who honoured the earth as their 
common mother, and made no envious inclofures ! 
They fported innocently on her fragrant bofom, and 
never molelted their kind parent by cruelty to any of 
her offspring. They fucked the milk of her breafts : 
Her veins ftreamed with wine and honey. They 
banquetted on variety of excellent fruits ; and no- 
body thought of killing and eating his fellow-ani- 
mals. The birds could then range the air without 
fear of the fowler ; neither did any yawling huntf- 
man roufe the timorous hare from her feat. The 
roes and the hinds could fcamper at pleafure over 
the plain, without being fcattered to the mountains 
and rocks for fanctuary ; neither did any fly angler 
trepan the fifh of the rivers. As for the fea, it was 
then unknown ; no man, as yet, had ventured up- 
on that perfidious element, or found out the ufe of 
fhips. There was in thofe days no foreign com- 
merce or traffick, or any need of it. Every region 
fupplied its inhabitants with what was ufeful and 
necefiary ; and thofe temperate mortals defired no 
more. They lived without irregular appetites, free 
from ambition, fraud, and blood. 

This is the life fo much defired by me, and which 
thou actually enjoyeft. God augment thy felicities 
and raptures, that thou mayeft pafs from one vifion 
and extafy to another, till Gabriel fnatch thy foul 
away in a divine transport, beyond the poffibility of 
a relapfe 

Holy Santone, whilir. thou art on earth, pray for 
me ; and, when thou art among the Immortals, do 
me fome favour which may laft for ever. 

Paris, % 6 th of the 8th Moon, 
of -the Year 1661. 



To Dgnet Oglou. 

Y bufinefs in this place obliges me to keep 
company with all forts of people. Hence 
indifferently affociate myfelf with ftatefmen, fol- 
diers, courtiers, priefts, fidlers, mechanicks, fea- 
men, perfons of any profcflion, from whom I cari 
hope for an/ improvement: For there is hardly fo 
defpicable a fellow in the world, who may not teach 
an inquiiitive mind fomething to which it was a 
ffranger before. 

Sometimes I converfe with painters, whom I ge- 
nerally find to be men of wit and fenk^ but very 
lewd and di dolute : However, they ferve to divert 
my melancholy, to which, thou knoweft, I am 
much inclined. P'or'they are themerrieft fparks in 
the world, abounding with fuch fmart repartees, jells, 
and comical ftories, befides a hundred mimical tricks 
of good buffoonry to make one laugh, that it is 
almoft impoflible to be fad in their company. 

They are moll: of them bred in the academy,- or 
in colleges and fchools where the fciences are pro- 
fefled : It being in a manner ncccilary that men of 
this trade fhould have a fmack of all forts of learn- 
ing, and efpecially, that they fhould be indifferent 
good hiftorians ; they being many times dehred to 
reprefent pieces of antique and modern hiftory, 
without a pattern. They have a very facetious way 
alfo of telling a ftcry to the life, as well as of drawing 
it fo in a picture. They would diffolve the moft ftifr 
and morofe Hadgi into laughter and jollity, to hear 
how gracefully they will ridicule the moil: ferious 
matters, and turn every thing into burlefque : For 
they are admirable fatyrifts by nature. 

Yet thefe are not all alike, but differ in their tem- 
pers like other men. Some of them are proud and 
itately, others fawning and abject : And all of them 
great humouriffo. 



It was an odd whim of Martin Heemfkirk, a fa- 
mous painter that was born at a village of the fame 
name. He died in the year of the Chriflian Hcgi- 
ra 1574. This man had amafièd together, in his 
life-time, a vaft quantity of money ; and, having 
no wife or children, nor other relations of his own 
to leave it to, he was refolved to do fomething for 
which he might be talked of after his death. I have 
.heard of many dying men that have had one caprice 
or other in making their laft will and teftament : 
But thou wilt fay this of Martin's was fingular. 
For, on his death-bed, he bequeathed all his wealth 
to be diftributed into equal dowries, or portions, 
wherewith to marry a certain number of maids of 
Heemfkirk, his birth-place, yearly, on this condi- 
tion, that the new-married couple, with all the 
wedding-gueits, fhould dance on his grave. 

It is neceiTary for thee to know, that iince his 
death there has been a great alteration of religion in 
thofe parts : The inhabitants, which in his tim« 
were Roman Catholicks, are now all Proteftants.. 
And, at the time of this change or reformation, as 
they call it, it was the general practice of the Pro- 
tectants to demolifh all the images and erodes 
wherever they found them.. Now, it was the cus- 
tom of the Roman Catholicks to fet up a crofs at 
the end of every fepulchre of the dead. Yet, fo 
great a veneration have the Heemfkirkers for the 
memory of this painter, that, whereas there is not 
a crofs to be feen {landing in all the country be- 
fides, yet his, being of brafs > remains untouched,, 
as the only title their daughters can- fhew to his 

It was a more cruel and inhuman caprice of an. 
Italian painter (I think his name was Giotto) who, 
«ieligning to draw a crucifix to the life, wheedled a 
poor man to fuffer himfelf to be bound to a crofs, 
for an hour, at the end of wHich he ihould be re- 
leafed again, and receive a confidcrable gratuity for 
bis pains. But, inftead of this, as foon as he had 
him faft on the crofs, he flabbed him dead, and then 



fell to drawing. He was efteemed the greater! maf- 
ter in all Italy at that time. And, having this ad- 
vantage of a dead man hanging on a crofs before 
him, there is. no queition but he made a matchlefs 
piece of work of it. 

As foon as he had finimed his piclure, he carried 
it to the Pope, who was aftonifhed, as at a prodigy 
of art, highly extolling the exquifitenefs of the fea- 
tures and limbs, the languifhing, pale deadnefs of 
the face, the unaffected linking of the head : In a 
word, he had drawn, to the life, not only that pri- 
vation of fenfe and motion which we call death,, 
but alfo the very want of the vital fymptom. 

This is better underftood than exprefied. Every 
body knows that it is a mafter-piece to reprefent a 
pailion, or a thought, well and naturally. Much* 
greater is it to defenbe the total abfence of thefe in- 
terior faculties, fo as to diiiinguifh the figure of a 
dead man from one that is only afleep. 

Yet all this and much more could the Pope dif- 
cern in the admirable draught which Giotto prefent- 
ed him. And he liked it fo well that he refolved to 
place it over the altar of his own chapel : For, thou 
knoweft, this is the practice of the Nazarenes, to, 
adore piclures and images. Giotto told him, fince 
he liked the copy fo well, he would fhew him the 
original, if he pleafed. 

What doft thou mean by the original ? faid the 
Pope. Wilt thou fhew me Jefus Chrifl on the 
crofs in his own perfon } No„ replied Giotto, but I 
will fhew your Holinefè the original from whence I 
drew this, if you will abfolve me from all puni&i- 

The good old father, fufpedling fortieth ing extra- 
ordinary, by the painter's thus capitulating with 
him, promifed, on his word, to pardon him. Which, 
Giotto believing, immediately told him where it 
was : And, attending him to the place, as foon as 
they were entered, he drew a curtain back, which 
hung before the dead man on the crofs,. and told the 
Pope what he had dene. 



The Holy Father, extremely troubled at fo in- 
human and barbarous an action, repealed his pro- 
mife, and told the painter he mould furely be put 
to an exemplary death. 

Giotto, feeming refigned to the fentence pro- 
nounced upon him, only begged leave to finim the 
picture before he died ; which was granted hirn. In 
the mean while, a guard was let upon him to pre- 
vent his efcape. As foon as die rope had caufed' 
the picture to be delivered into his hands, he takes 
a brum, and, dipping it into a fort of ituff he had 
ready for that purpofe, daubs the • icture all over 
with it, fo that nothing now could be feeii of the 
crucifix ; but it was quite effaced, in sii outward ap- 

This made the Pope ftark-mad : He itamped, 
foamed, and raved like one in a frenfy. He fwore 
the painter mould fufFer the moll cruel death that 
could be invented, unlefs he drew another full as 
good as the former ; for, if but the leaft grace was 
miffing, he would not pardon him : But, if he 
could produce an exact parallel, he would not only 
give him his life, but an ample reward in money. 

The painter, as he had reafon, defiredthis under 
the Pope's fignet, that he might not be in danger 
of a fecond repeal ; which was granted him. And 
then he took a wet fponge, and wiped off all the 
varnifh he had daubed on the picture. And the 
crucifix appeared the fame in all refpects as it was 

The Pope, who looked upon this as a great fecret, 
being ignorant of the arts which painters ufe, was 
ravimed at the llrange metamorphofis. And, to re-, 
ward the painter's ingenuity, he abfolved him from 
all his fins and the punimments due to them ; or- 
dering, moreover, his (reward to cover the picture 
all over with gold, as a farther gratuity to the pain- 
ter. And they fay this crucifix is the original by 
which the moft famous crucifixes in Europe are 

I need 


I need make no other reflection on this, than 
that, as the fuppofed murder of Jefus, the fon of 
Mary, is the fource of all the Chriftians devotion, 
fo the real homicide which this painter committed 
has made it more intente and fervent, by how much 
the crucifixes drawn after this pattern excel all that 
were feen before them, in the tragical portraiture 
of the martyred Meffias. 

And for this reafon it is that painters are in fo 
great efleem among the Italians, becaufe they form 
the Gods which thofe Infidels adore. It is no won- 
der, therefore, that the chief head of their church 
fhould fo eafily abfolve murder in a painter, as a 
venial fin, efpecially when it is done in ' ordine ad 
i Deum,' as the Jefuits fay, that is, to promote 
God's glory, as the Pope eafily perfuaded himfelf 
this was ; lince idolatry is the main engine which 
fupports the fiate and grandeur of the Roman Court. 
And all the world knows that holy city is the type 
of heaven ; or, at leaft, the crafty priefls would 
fain reprefent it fo. 

My friend, thou and I have feen enough of their 
tricks, and holy frauds, in Sicily. Praife be to 
God they have no power to pervert us. Our faith 
remains inviolate : We ftill poflefs the integrity of 
MufTulmans, the native attachment we owe to the 
Prophet, who was fent to exterminate idols. In a 
word, we adore but one God, Creator of all the 
worlds. May that Incomprehenfible for ever keep 
us in the fame faith and practice, till the releafe of 
our fouls. 

Paris, 13th of the 9th Moon, 
of the Year 1661. 




To Lubano Abufei Saad, an Egyptian Knight. 

THIS Court is now at Fontainebleau, and ali 
feems to be diflblved in joy for the birth of a 
Dauphin. The Queen was delivered of this young 
Prince on the firit. day of this moon. There is no- 
thing but feafting, dancing, and revelling on this 
-account, with bonfires and congratulatory addref- 
fes. Only the Duke of Orleans, the King's bro- 
ther, has little reafon to be over merry, fince he was 
the next prefumptive heir of the Crown, in cafe the 
King died without ifFue male : For the laws of 
France exclude a female from reigning. Yet this 
Duke diifembles his inward grief for being thus put 
by his hope, and appears as joyful as the father him- 
felf. He hugs and admires the royal babe, wifning 
him health and long life in a compliment, whom he 
really could rather wifh out of the world, or at leaft 
that he had never come into it. So violent are the 
temptations of a Crown, fo ftrong the defire of em- 
pire, that the nearnefs of relation, which indears 
the reft of mortals one to another, eftranges the 
hearts of Princes from thofe of their own Wood, if 
ithey fland in the way of their ambition. And, I can 
afTure thee, the French do not fpare to fay the Duke 
of Orleans has enough of this vice to attempt great 
things, were not his genius over -awed by the 
matchlefs fortune and fpirit of his brother. 

Neither is this King himfelf infenfible of this ; 
remembering with what warmth the Duke received 
the flattering addrefles of fome Courtiers, during 
his brother's dangerous ncknefs, when the phyfi- 
cians had well-nigh given him over for a dead man. 

I was acquainted with this paffage but lately by 
Ofmin the dwarf, who watches all the motions of 
this Court. He tells me, that the King, being in- 
formed a rumour was whifpered among the Gran- 
dees of his death, caufed them all to be fent for, and 
to pafs through his chamber, whilft the curtains of 



his bed were drawn open, that they mtght fee their 
Sovereign alive, though in a bad ftate of health. 
He fays, moreover, that the true reafon why feveral 
Lords of late have been removed from their offices 
about the King is, becaufe he refented ill the too 
early and paffionate court they made to the Duke 
©f Orleans, on the report of his brother's death. 
It is natural to all men to love themfelves, and to 
defire the difpofal of their own affairs. No man 
would be content to have his eftate given away by 
his fervants at their own difcretion. And Sovereign 
Monarchs are the molt jealous of all men, in fuch 
cafes : Particularly, the King of France is known 
to bea Prince very fenfible of his honour, and foon 
touched in that point, by the leaft appearance of 
difrefpeci: in his fubjeàs, and of incroachment in 
his neighbours. 

As for the Duke of Orleans, he is a Prince of no 
great character, either as a Soldier or a Statefman : 
Neither has he been much talked of in the world, 
till the beginning of this year, when he married an 
Englifh Princefs, by name Henrietta, daughter to 
the late murdered King of that nation. 

We have had another match here alfo betweea 
the late Duke of Orleans's daughter and the Prince 
-of Tufcany. Thefe things occafion various dif- 
courfe among thofe who pretend to weigh exactly 
the different interefts of Chriflian Courts, efpecial- 
ly of fuch as are concerned in the new alliances. 
£ or the greateft Monarchs, here in the Welt, marry 
only for profit and advantage, to fortify themfelves 
by a clofer union with the Houfe to which they are 
-allied : Whereas our Eaftern Princes only indulge 
their paffions in the choice of their wives ; admit- 
ting none to their embraces, but the moft exquifite 
beauties that can be found. And, where they once 
pitch their fancy, they neither regard riches, ho- 
nour, or any other recommendation, fave what their 
love fuggefts ; being themfelves inexhauftible foun- 
tains of wealth, nobility, and good fortune, to all 
who have the happineCs to .be in their favour. 



They fcorrf to fell themfelves and prottitute the 
glory of their diadem to a foreign Prince, for the 
fake of a little gold, and much more trouble with 
a proud female, whom, perhaps, they never faw. 
Yet this is the common practice among the Princes 
of the Nazarene belief; who confider not, that, 
inftead of a wife, a partner of the empire, and a 
friend, they often entertain a make, a traitor, and 
an enemy : Efpecially if fhe be a woman of wit and 
intrigue, as moil of them are. This made the now 
Queen-mother, the relict of Lewis XIII, fufpedted 
by her hufband ; and the prefent Queen of France 
is under the like circumftances : And it will be al- 
ways fo, where Princes match themfelves after this 
manner, and cannot debar their wives from holding 
a fecret correfpondence with the family from which 
they defcend. 

Àfiuredly, the Ottoman politicks are the moft re- 
fined and fevere of any in the world ; our religion 
rnoft holy, and our morals moft found. Which 
three are evident figns, that God has raifed up this 
facred empire to fubdue all the nations on earth, 
and bring them to the faith of the divine unity. 

[ Paris, 9th of the 1 1 th Moon, 
of the Year 166 1. 


To Cara Hali, Phyfician to the Grand 

I AM now in my chamber by a glowing fire, 
wanting nothing that can comfort a reafonable 
man : Whilft I hear the winds whittling, the f'now 
driving upon the windows, and the hollow voices 
of the watch proclaiming a night little lefs cold than 
that lafting one they feel in the Arciic circle once a 
3 ear. Yet I wifh inyfelf on a plain, or on the top 



• of ibme high mountain, where I might feel Nature 
in the moft rigid of all her humours. I love variety, 
.and it is a pain to be confined to pleafure ,itielf, 
when it is all of one kind, or what I am ufed to. 

It is to thee, my dear.Hali, I owe this^thought, 
when you told me once, as we were walking toge- 
ther in the ccemetery of Sultan. Solyman's mofque, 
' that man is made for all things.' 

I remember the elegance and force of reafon with 
which you explained your fentiments upon a lofs 
which I had then fuitained by fhipwreck ; comfort- 
ing me with thefe reflections, that all the gains on 
earth are only burdens : All the riches, honours, 
-pleafures, and whatfoever is defined by mortals, arc 
but fo many clogs, to tie us falter to this little, nar- 
row globe, which we are born to trample on as our 

All this is true : But I confider farther, that the 
occurrences of this life ought to be received with 
indifference, and we fhould be as chearful in a pri- 
fon as in a palace ; becauie nothing can happen to'u^ 
which was not decreed by Fate, fvlethinks, I could 
■go as freely, to torments in a juft caule, as to a fump- 
tuous banquet. I could fmile at the malice of my 
profecntors, and triumph over the vain executioner-, 
when Ifee^them fweat at their inhuman toil, and 
yet can never have their wills of a foul caff into fucii 
a mould as mine, whatever they may do with my 
body. Though they excruciate me with a thoufand 
•inventions 01 cruelty, though they reduce me to 
nines, yet .they cannot rob. me of my reafon. Nei- 
ther fire, nor fword, nor rack, nor any other in- 
flrument of barbarous rage can hurt my thoughts, 
I fhall ftill have the power of meditating, in fpite of 
them all : And I elteem that the fpecifick happinefe 
of a rational creature. There is no fuch thing as 
pleafureor pain but what our opinion makes (o. J 
have tried to handle fire : I have grafped hot burn- 
ing coals in the palm of my hand with which I now 
write. The devouring element foon faftened on my 
(kin. and eat its way through into my rleih, whilìt 

Vol. VI. £ I was 


I was bufy in contemplating its nature and effects, 
without being concerned in any fenfe of pain. I 
kept a tight rein and curbed my foul. I held it 
within compafs, and would not furTer it to wince, 
or lafh, or flounce out of itfelf, or defcend into my 
body, to refcue the part affected, or be concerned 
at its grievances. But, when I reflected on the in- 
conveniencies that might follow, and that it would 
hinder me from ferving the Grand Signior and my 
friends, I threw the coals away, well fatisfied that 
I had made the experiment without prejudicing my 
reafon, or falling into any paflion unbecoming a 

I take as much pleafure in faffing as in eating or 
drinking ; in labour as in reft; in watching as in 
lleep. There is no excefs or contrariety in nature, 
which does not afford me as much delight as medi- 
ocrity, or the golden mean itfelf. I find a guff in 
every thing that happens to me. And this I take to 
be the proper part of a MulTulman, or of one resign- 
ed to God. 

Yet this hinders me not from buftling in the world, 
and profecutingmy bufinefs with alacrity and fome 
cagernefs. We are born for action, and not wholly 
for thought. It is a mixed life we are to lead on 
earth. But, when I fail of my end or defired fuc- 
cefs in any undertaking, I am not troubled, confi - 
dering I was born to encounter evil as well as good 
in this mortal ftate. 

In all that I have faid, I do not pretend to the 
celebrated apathy of the Stoicks ; I feel pleafure and 
pain from the fame objects which thus affect other 
men ; but I feel them with indifference, not fuffer- 
ing my understanding and judgment to participate 
with my paflion and lsn(Q. 

I have perceived myfelf fometimes in agonies, 
which, I thought, exactly anfwered the character 
of thofe which dying perfons feel. And, I believe, 
they were in a degree the very fame : Yet I found 
no panic fears upon me, no dread of that amazing 
change : But rather certain blooming hopes, young, 



tender, fpringing joys, arifing from the thoughts of 
a new life, the unavoidable effect of that which we 
call death, wherein I promifed myfelf the pleafure 
of frefh enjoyments and diverfions, to which I was 
wholly then a Arranger. 

If thou thinkeft this too extravagant, and that 
death is not a proper object of our wilhes, yet thou 
wilt at leaft acknowledge, that it may furnim us 
with fumcient arguments of content and acqui- 
efcence, fince no man can avoid it, and it is fo lur« 
to entertain us with novelties which we never were 
acquainted with before, which recommends it un- 
der a very delirable figure, becaufe human nature 
perpetually covets new things. 

I have feen perfons condemned to death here in 
Paris, who have been offered life upon certain con- 
ditions not agreeing with their humour : Yet have 
refufed it and rather chofe death, which they knew 
would free them at once from all their prefeiit trou- 
bles. And thou knoweft with what reilgnation 
our greatelt Bafia's fubmit their necks to the execu- 
tioners when the Grand Signior thinks fit to call for 
their lives. All that they reply to the fatal man- 
date is, ' The will of my Sovereign Lord be done.' 
They at once gather up all the itrength of their 
fcattered reafon, and fhrink their dilated fouls to a 
point. Then, with a redoubled force, they make 
oft their inclinations to honours, riches, and the 
pleafures of this life, as a man roufes from a Iona; 
dream or trance. With fmiles and a profound 
fubmiffion they kifs the royal firme, being awaken- 
ed to the thoughts of more illuftricus and ferene 
joys than this grofs earth affords, even to the inef- 
fable pleafures of Eden, the lure reward of thofe 
that die in obedience and peace : Since they are to 
be efteemed martyrs, as well as thofe who meet 
death in the field of the facred combat, in the war 
for our holy faith. 

Oh that it were my lot thus to expire in honour, 

to have my laft breath mixed with the devout aipi- 

rations and fuffrages of True Believers, that fo my 

E 2 example 


example might edify others, and the publick cha- > 
raéler of an untainted loyalty might benefit myfelf ! 
"Whilft fame proclaimed it before my arrival at the 
invifible regions, to prepare the ghoits of juft men 
to bid me welcome, and give me a kind reception, 
who am yet wholly a ftranger in thofe parts of the 
world : tor Death itfelf cannot banim me out of 
the univerfe. And there is my laft comfoit. 

Thou my dear phyfician, wilt conclude I am 
melancholy by this kind of difcourfe. But, I tell 
thee, it is only another way of expreffing the fecret 
pleaiure and tranquillity of my foul, which is more 
to be valued by him that enjoys it, than all the 
laughter and extravagant mirth in the world. Thefe 
only ruffle our pallions, and raife a duft in our eyes : 
Whereas the other compofe and purify our reafon, 
giving us a conftant profpecl: of things paft, pre- 
fent, and to come. So that we can never be at a 
lofs, but always ready equipped for the worft con- 
tingencies. Hali, Adieu. 

Paris, 15th of die nth Moon, 
of die Year 1661. 


To the fame. 

TH E Court of France in all things endeavours 
to imitate the grandeur of the Roman Em- 
perors and their policy. As they had their amphi- 
theatres, wherein were exhibited all forts of fhews 
and fpeclacles to divert the people in time of peace ; 
fo have thefe thejr theatres, whereon, according to 
the more acceptable mode of the prefent age, are 
reprefented the various kinds of virtue and vice ; 
men's follies and perfections ; modern humours and 
the ancient morality; intrigues of love and of fiate ; 
furprifìng aótions of war 3 and the fubtle overtures 



of peace; and tyranny of Sovereigns, and rebellion 
of fubjects. In fine, whatfoever is treated of in 
books is here acted to the life on the il age, and 
with fo much advantage of fcenes, interludes, mu- 
fick, dances, language, wit, humour, and the like 
charming circumstances, that a man, at fome hours, 
cannot better pafs away his time, than in being pre- 
lent at thefe entertainments ; where all that he has 
read, either in ancient or modern hiftory, deferving 
remark, mall be fuccefllvely prefented to his view, 
as efficacioufly as if the perfons were now living and 
in prefence, whofe actions each play deicribes. 

There you mail be introduced, as it were, into 
the court and camp of the Grand Cyrus : You fhall 
accompany Alexander the Great in his expeditions 
through Afia : You fhall fee him die of poifon at 
Babylon, and the Macedonian empire cantonifed 
among his Officers : You fhall behold all the Ro- 
man Ca?fars in their rife and fall : With whatfoever 
particularities were obfervable in this or any other 
renowned monarchy on earth ; not excluding the lait 
and moft univerfal Empire of the Ottomans. For 
thefe Infidels prefume to act over again the part of 
Tamerlane, and lead about in adramatick triumph 
the incaged, yet Hill invincible, Bajazct. In habits 
which only become the dtftined conquerors of the 
world, thefe fìaves dare pcrfonate the glorious Soly- 
man, Mahomet the Great, the victorious Selim, 
and even Amurath himfelf, the flouteft Emperor 
that ever reigned : I mean the uncle of our prefent 

Befides true hiflory thus reprefented, the fpecla- 
tors are fometimes diverted with fabulous entries of 
gods, nymphs, fauns, fatyrs, mufes, graces, mon- 
gers, and whatfoever we find in the ancient poets. 

There you fhall fee Prometheus fetching fire from 
heaven to give life to his man of clay ; Lycaon 
transformed into a wolf for his inhofpitable car- 
riage to Jupiter ; Ganymede fnatched up into hea- 
ven by an eagle, and made Jupiter's cup-bearer, for 
kis lingular beauty. It is nleafant alfo to fee Phrixus, 
E 3 wkh 


v/ith his filter Helle, fwimming over the Hellefpont 
on the back of a ram, with a golden fleece; whilft 
(he, for fear, falls off and is drowned : And from 
he r name (Helle) that fea is fuppofed to be fo call- 
ed. In the mean while, Phrixus fwims forward, 
znd arrives at Colchis, where he facrinces the ram, 
and hangs the golden fleece up in the temple ; which 
was afterwards ftole away by Jafon and his Argo- 
nauts. It is equally diverting to fee the artifìce of 
the fcenes and machines which reprefent Jupiter 
transforming himfelf into a fhower of gold, and fo 
descending into Danae's lap, when he begets Per- 
feus on her, who fubdued the Gorgcns, and, with 
JVIedufa's head, turned the Cephean Nobles into 
itatues : In a word, all the ingenious fictions of Or- 
pheus, Homer, Hefiod, Ovid, and the reft of the 
<jreek and Roman poets, are here tranflated, not fo 
much from one language to another, as from words 
to actions, and from dead, inanimate characters, to 
living figures of the things themfelves. For thefe 
fcrts of plays are acled by men, women, and chil- 
dren, culled out and educated for that purpofe ; and 
the managers are at a vaft charge for variety of pro- 
per fcenes and dreffes for every occafion ; each aclor 
being exactly apparelled according to the different 
quality of the peribns reprefented, and the mode of 
the age and country wherein they lived. 

Thefe forts of diverfions are very agreeable both 
to the Court and city. The King takes great 
delight in them, efpecially in ballets and paftorals, 
which confift chiefly of good fongs and dances, 
mixed with bold and uncouth entries of antiques, 
reprefenting monfters and devils, as the Chriftians 
ufually defcribe them. 

But there was lately a check given to their fport 
by an accident which has furprifed all people that 
heard of it, and has puzzled the moft intelligent 
heads to give an account of fo ftrange an occur- 

On the 19th of this moon, the King and the 
whole Court were prefent at a ballet, reprefenting 



the grandeur of the French monarchy. About the 
middle of the entertainment there was an antique 
dance, performed by twelve mafqueraders in the 
fuppofed forms of daemons. But, before they had 
advanced far in their dance, they found an interloper 
amongft them, who, by increafing their number to 
thirteen, put them quite out of their meafures : For 
they praétife every ftep and motion before-hand, till 
they are perfect. Being abafhed, therefore, at the- 
unavoidable blunders the thirteenth antique made 
them commit, they flood itili like fools, gazing at 
one another : None daring to unmade, or fpeak a 
word ; for that would have put all the fpectators 
into diforder and confufioh. Cardinal Mazarine 
(who was the chief contriver of thefe entertainments 
to divert the King from more ferious thoughts) ftcod 
clofe by the young Monarch, with a fcheme of the 
ballet in his hand. Knowing therefore, that this 
dance was to confili but of twelve antiques, and 
taking notice that there were actually thirteen, at 
firft he imputed it to fome miftake. But afterwards, 
when he perceived the confufion of the dancers, and 
that they could not proceed, he made a more nar- 
row inquiry into the caufe of this diforder. To be 
brief, they convinced the Cardinal, that it could be 
no error of theirs, by a kind of demonftration, in 
that they had but twelve antique drefles of that fort, 
which were made on purpofe for that particular 
ballet ; whereas the thirteenth dancer was difguifed 
after the fame manner. Therefore they concluded, 
that either the devil, or fomebody elfe, had put a 
trick on them. That which made it feem the great- 
er myftery was, that, when they came behind the 
fcenes to uncafe and examine the matter, they found 
but twelve antiques, whereas on the ftage there 
were thirteen. 

The preci fer fort of bigots gave it out for certain, 
that the devil was amongft them : Whilft others 
more probably fay it was only fome envious or am- 
bitious dancing-mailer, who was either refolved to 
be revenged for not being one of. the twelve, or de- 
E 4 figned 


figned to fhew his parts incognito againft anothcf 
opportunity, and, in the interim, fet the Court a 
wondering at his lingular fkill and dexterity: For 
it was obferved that one of the thirteen far iurpafted 
all the refi:, and did things to a miracle. 

Be it how it will, it has brought to memory a 
paiiage that happened on the like occafion, at a 
town not far from Paris, about eighteen years ago, 
yet it was not half io much talked of then as it is 
now \ which was the reafon I took no notice of it 
in any of my letters. But now they are big with 
it : It is the general difcourfe of all companies, who 
make compari fon of that event with this. Perhaps, 
it will not be unpleafarit to thee to know it. 

In the year 1644, towards the latter end, a com- 
pany of itage-players were at a place called Vi try, 
entertaining the people with comedies ; but there 
happened fomething really tragical to one of the 
aòtors. This man was to perform the part of one 
dead, and then he was to revive again by magick. 
He a£led his part too truly, and baffled the necro- 
mancer's art. For, when he touched him with his 
talifman, as the rules of the play required, in order 
to his.refurrection, the inanimate trunk could not 
obey. The man was dead indeed. 

Whether he over-flrained himfclf in imitating, 
the fiient, itili, and irrecoverable privations of a pai- 
tive frate, and gave his fiippery foul a ftrong temp- 
tation, with a fair opportunity, toefcape its bonds; 
or whether Heaven had a particular hand in fo re- 
markable a cataftrophe ; I wiH not prefume to di- 
vine. But this and the other occurrences have put the 
people quite out of conceit with plays. 

Sage Hali, remember the Arabian proverb,, which 
fays, 4 It is not good to jefi with God, Death, or 
' the Devil. For the firft neither can, nor will be 

* mocked ; the fecond mocks all men, one time or 
Mother; and the third puts an eternal fa rea fm on 

* thofe that are too familiar with him/ Adieu» 
Paris 3©th of the ift Moon, 

of the Year i66z. 




To Dgnet Oglou. 

GO D unravel my foul, reverfe my faculties, 
turn my nature infide out, make me a mon- 
ger of a new predicament, or annihilate me, which 
he pleafes, if I am not true to my trull ; yet the 
Miniiters of the Porte fufpecl me. 

By the thoughts of Mahomet, our holy Lawgiver, 
whilft he was climbing the boundlefs heights of the 
firmament, I have a heart like the Roman Curtius, 
who bravely leaped into the fathomlefs abyf% to fave 
his country from ruin. They mifbke Mahmut, 
who think he will be pimped out of his loyalty by 
frowns or fmiles, flatteries or threats, gold or tor- 
tures. I would run the rifque of damnation itfelf to 
ferve my Sovereign, or do any thing becoming .a 
man of honour. Yet my Superiors ufe me like a 
villain or a traitor. Their letters are full of re- 
proaches and threatenings, as if I were not worthy 
to live. It is itrange to me whence ail this malice 
mould proceed ; and that, after I have done and {ut- 
tered all that could be expected from a MuiTulman 
in my poft, to demonftrate my incorruptible fide- 
lity to the Grand Signior, I mould ftill be perfecuted 
asatiafer, and enemy to the Ottoman intereft, 1 
know^ot what to think of it. 

If I have done any thing which deferves death, 
or imprifonment, why do they not fend for me to 
Conftantinople, and execute jultice on me ? Or, if 
I am not thought fit to continue any longer in this 
poft, why do they not call for my commiifion, ani 
give it fomebody better qualified ? Either of thefe 
would be a merciful proceeding, compared with the 
more cruel and ignominious way they have invent- 
ed to murder me : For now they put me to a linger- 
ing death, by continually corroding and wafting the 
peace of my foul, which is my life, with contempts 
and reproaches. 

E 5 I am 


I am not at all troubled when they tax me with 
atheifm, or fay I am a kyfilbafchi, a libertine, a 
chriftian, a. heathen philolbpher ; or, when they are 
pleafed to make a monfter of me, a mungrel galli- 
maufry, a walking hotchpotch compounded of Jew, 
Turk, Nazarene, and Epicure. In loading me with 
thefe opprobrious titles, they rank me with fome of 
the greater! mortals, and engage even our holy Pro- 
phet himfelf to efpoufe my caufe, and vindicate my 
reputation ; fince he is in thefe very terms blaf- 
phemed by the followers of Jefus : Thefe Infidels, 
forgetting that their own Meffias was after the like 
manner traduced by the Jews, who called him im- 
poftor, magician, heretick, devil, and I know not 
v/hat. This has been the lot of all holy men and 
Prophets, to be envied and afperfed by the Grandees 
of the nation and age wherein they lived : Becaufe 
they boldly reproved their vices, and taught them 
the fmcere maxims of virtue, both by word and ex- 
ample. And, though I have not vanity enough to 
lift myfelf in the number of Prophets, or perfect 
men, yet I have reafon to conclude, that all this 
perfecution is raifed againft me, on the account of 
the liberty I take to reprehend the errors and fail- 
ings of thofe who are ilaves to the Grand Signior as 
well as I : Though I have been commanded to do 
this by the molt auguft Miniiter of the empire. But 
Great Men in power love not to be told of their 
faults. They would live arbitrary as Sovereigns, 
without the leaft check or controul. They will ra- 
ther cherim a thoufand flatterers and fycophants, 
than fuffer one Diogenes to live. 

But that which vexes me moll is, that they glance 
upon me in fome expreiiions, as if I were falfe to 
the truft which is repofed in me. A crime for which 
I ever had an invincible abhorrence, and which 
would fooner tempt me a thoufand times to die, than 
to be once guilty of it. Thou knoweft my temper, 
and I need fay no more. 

I fhould have burft with grief and indignation, 
fcad I not given my refentment this vent, and that 



to a friend, who, by knowing my affliction, takes 
one half of it for his own fhare, and fo I am eafed. 

Paris, 2d of the 4th Mbon, 
of the Year 1662. 


To Abraham Ali Zeid, Hadgi, Preacher to 
the Seraglio. 

THEY have a proverb here in the Weft which 
fays, * All is not gold that gliders.' And it 
is frequently verified in their own priefts, who are, 
generally, the greatefi: hypocrites in the world. 

I had not been long in this city, before I fent a 
letter to Bedredin, Superior of the Dervifes of Cog- 
ni in Natòlia, whofefoul is now with God; where- 
in I gave him an account of the converfe I once 
had with a Jefuit. For, pretending to be a ftudent 
and retainer to the clergy, I could not avoid the 
company of eccleiiafticks ; befides, it was my inte- 
reft to infinuate into their acquaintance ; and, to 
tell the truth, I have made it a great part of my bu- 
finefs to gain a familiarity with priefts and dervifes, 
ever fince I came hither. 

There was abundance of reafon for this on feve- 
ral accounts. For I improved myfelf much by the 
fociety of thofe amongft them that are learned ; and 
I edified not a little by the very ignorance and fol- 
lies of others. From fome I fqueezed out fecrets of 
ftate and the defien of cabals : By others I pene- 
trated into the myiterious vices of their own order. 
In a word, all of them taught me fomething or other 
which I knew not before ; and I never bad occafiori 
to repent of keeping them company. 

I contracted a particular friendmip with an ho^ 

neft friar or two in this city, who were perfons of 

candor and learning : But now they are dead. Be- 

E 6 fides, 


fides, I have had no fmall intimacy with Cardinal 
Richlieu, and his fucceiibr Mazarine. I teli thee, 
if I had not coveted the friendfhip of thefe princely 
priefis, yet it had been impoflible to efcape their 
knowledge, as obfcure a figure as I make. For it 
was their conftant practice thus to feek out all the 
Grangers and travellers in this city, under pretence 
of that great regard they had for men of merit ; but, 
in reality, to pump out of them foreign fecrets. 

Cardinal Richlieu profefTed a great kindnefs to 
me, bccaufe I had been at Constantinople, ami in 
other parts of the Grand Signior's dominions. He 
leemed alfo to value me not a little for my (kill in 
interpreting Greek, Sclavonick, and other languages 
of the Eaft. What he thought of me in his heart, 
I cannot divine ; but have reafon to think he fuf- 
peóted me for a Mufiulman. And yet I wonder he 
never fearched for the main proof, the mark of cir- 
cumcifion. Perhaps, it was an effect of his good- 
nature, as being loth to ruin me irrecoverably. But 
1 had rntheraicribe it to Providence, which would 
not iufrer him, it maybe, to make fo fatal a reflec- 
tion : Yet, by his order, fome years ago, I was im- 
prifoned for fix moons. What the meaning of it 
was, I never could dive into. But I had a mrewd 
jealoufy of a certain Traniylvanian Refident at this 
Court, who, perhaps, might do me fome ill offices. 
The world is like a !otte»y, wherein one muft expect 
to meet with many unlucky chances. 

By what I have faid, thou wilt eafily perceive, 
that, although the priefts make a fair femblance of 
piety, mortification, and other religious virtues, yet 
they are great bufy-bodies, and wholly taken up in 
fecular alt airs. 

If this were the worft character they deferve, 
they might pafs for very good men, and necefia- 
rf instruments of the publick welfare : Becaufe 
they have the tutelage and guardianfhip of all men's 
confciences ; they form them in their youth, and 
govern them in their ripeft years. Befides, they 
have many advantages of Studying' politicks more 



than other men, as being all educated in academies 
where, if they be not very dull, they cannot fail o* 
becoming good hiftorians and indifferent ftatef- 
men : For their libraries abound with all manner of 
ancient and modern writers, and their converfatioa 
is generally refined and pregnant in intrigues. 

But they corrupt their learning with falfe maxims, 
which they borrow from an intolerable pride and 
fenfuality ; perfuading themfelves that they are as 
far above other men, that is, the laity, as thofe are 
above the beafts ; that God has beftowed on them a 
dignity fuperior to that of the greateii: temporal Mo- 
narchs ; and, in fine, that this earth is a Paradife, 
and themfelves the Gods and Lords of it. 

When I fpeak thus of the Nazarene priefts, un- 
derstand me not without reftriclion. There are 
fome good and holy men amongft them, perfons of 
unblemimed manners, and incorrupt fincerity. But 
thefe are very rare, and the French priefts are ef- 
teemed the moil: fincere of any within the pale of 
the Roman church. 

As for the Italian clergy, they are mere liber- 
tines ; the molt debauched and profligate fellows in 
the world. 

Adonai, the Jew, a late private agent of the Grand 
Signior, who had travelled up and down through all 
Italy, and refided a confiderable time in the chief 
cities and towns of note, made many curious ob- 
fervations and remarks on the lives of the priefts, 
which he fet down in his journal. This I have by 
me now, it being fent me, according to my defire, 
after his death, by Zeidi Alamanzi, his fucceffor 
in that ftation, who is at prefent at Venice. 

I have perufed this relation myfelf, with no fmall 
pleafure; and believe it will not be unwelcome to 
thee to give thee an abftxacì: of what he fays. 

It is poffible he may exaggerate fome things, and 
deliver himfelf too partially in others, out of the na- 
tural and inherent averfion the Jews have for the 
ChrifHans. But thou wilt find, that, in the main, 
he infifts only on fuch reflections as it becomes any 



man to make who has the leaft fpark of common 
morality and reafon. 

In the firft place, he finds fault with the ecclefi- 
afticks, in that they abftain from marriage them- 
felves, yet recommend that ftate to the laity, as a 
very holy facrament and myftery of religion : Whilft 
they.ihdulge themfelves, at the fame time, inali 
marner of lafcivioufnefs ; wallowing in fornication, 
adultery, inceri, and fodomy itfelf. He fays there 
is hardly one prieft in ten who does not keep two or 
three harlots ; and the moll: reclufe dervifes are either 
pimps to ether men's lults, or they indulge their 
own with the mori: infamous courtefans and cata- 
mites. Thefe pretenders to perfection and fandtity 
are often found mafquerading and revelling about 
the ftreets in the time of their carnival, with a com- 
pany of whores, for their attendants. Nay, all the 
year round their monafteries are no other than itews 
or brothel-houfes. They introduce women into 
their cells in a monafrick habit, and fo they pafs for 
men who come to vifit them as friends, relations, 
or travellers. Thefe Ladies of pleafure lie thus 
concealed for many days and nights together, and 
the Superior of the' convents winks at this for a 
little money, being moil commonly as bad as any of 

Thefe holy fathers go marching and touching 
along the ftreets in the moft mortified manner ima- 
ginable. You would take them for perfect fantones 
and idiots. Yet this is all but mummery, whilft 
they are the mofr. glofling hypocrites in the world, 
mere devils in a city, and abounding in wicked 
thoughts and practices. 

Adonai tells a pleafant ftory of a young monaftick 
of St.Dominick's order at Rome. This monk was of 
noble extraction, and his parents were very rich and 
powerful in the city, on which account he was in- 
dulged in many liberties denied to the reft of his re- 
ligious brethren. He was permitted to carry good 
quantities of gold and filver about him, for his per- 
fonal expences - } and to wear a fecular habit fuitable 



to his birth and quality. But this liberty had lfke 
ro have proved fatal to him one night during the 

It was late and very dark when this religious bul- 
ly was beating the ftreets^.upon the hunt for whores ; 
and, walking under certain piazzas near the river 
Tyber, he was accofted by a woman mafked and 
in a very good drefs, who fpoke to him frankly, afk- 
ing him the way to II Rotundo. This is the name 
of a church in Rome, dedicated to all the Saints : 
In the time of the Gentiles it was called Pantheon, 
or the Temple of all the Gods. The monk, being 
in one of his rambling equipages, and his inclina- 
tions equally bent on pleaiure, having alfo.'a hun- 
dred florins about him, prefently made anfwer, that 
he would conduci her to the place fhe inquired for. 
She, after feme counterfeit eflays of a modeft re- 
pulfe, at length accepted his offer : And, by the 
way, he ptrfuaded her into a tavern. The cunning 
nymph managed her bufinefs lb well, that the monk, 
over-heated with wine, and other coltly entertain- 
ments, grew fo in love with her, that he forgot fhe 
was to go to the Pantheon, and offered to wait on 
her home. She accepted the motion, and, telling 
him her houfe was feated on the banks of the Ty- 
ber, they returned the fame way as they came. 

When they arrived at the piazzas where they firn: 
met, three perfons appeared muffled up in clokes ; 
two of which fuddenly feized the monk, holding 
their poniards at his breaft ; whilft the third, dif- 
clcfmg the hidden light of a dark lanthorn which 
he held in his hands, fattened on the Lady and 
made her unmafk. As foon as he faw her face, he 
ftamped and raved, menaced and fwore he would 
be the death of that villain, who had debauched his 
wife. All this was but a fore-laid defign. In a 
word, after all the parts of an abufed,.incenfed, 
revengeful hufband, acted to the life, at laff , through 
the intercefnon of the two other ruffians, and the 
monk's penitent and fubmifnve addrefs, it was con- 
cluded to fpare his life, and only ftrip him naked ; 



eaving him in that condition to feek his fortune 
among the watch. 

This was foon put in execution, and the free- 
booters, with all their prey, fecurely marched off. 
The poor monk, thus miferably abandoned, with- 
out garments, money, or any thing to comfort him 
in this calamity, or to bribe the watch, gave him- 
felf over to melancholy and defpair, in regard this 
accident would bring an eternal infamy on him, 
and he mould be no longer able to fhew his face in 
Rome, the feat of his nativity; nor among any of 
his kindred and friends. Sometimes he thought to 
drown himfelf in the Tyber; or elfe to counterfeit 
afrenfy, and fo run bawling, drivelling, and talk- 
ing nonfenfe through the itreet j hoping the reft 
would never be divulged. 

Whilft he was in thefe penfive thoughts, irrefo- 
lute what to do, the watch, walking their rounds, 
bolted upon him on a fudden ; and, feeing a naked 
man, at that time of night, in fuch a folitary place, 
at iirft were ftartled, as though they had met a 
ghoft ; but, recolle£tingthemfelves better, they bold- 
ly feized his perfon, and examined how he came in 
that condition. 

It was in vain for him to beg, intreat, and pro- 
mife any thing, if they would not expofe him to 
open marne. This did but increafe their curiofity 
and fufpicicn. In a word, the pkee of their ren- 
dezvous being very nc^r the fame tavern where this 
unfortunate monk had regaled his ftrumpet, they 
led him thither, and kept him prifoner till the 
morning. He that kept the houfe remembered his 
face again, and, knowing that the Governor of 
Rome had a fecret enmity againlt the monk,. and all 
his race, lent him private intelligence of this ad- 
venture, encouraging him to take this opportunity 
of revenge ; hinting withal, that he need not take 
notice that he knew the monk, but only punifh 
him as an ordinary fellow, breaking the faws of 
the city. 



The Governor, being glad of this oceafion, when 
the monk was brought before him, ordered him to 
be whipped through the very ftreet where his mo- 
naftery ftood. This was done accordingly ; and, 
as he pafTed by the gate, his brethren, feeing him in 
that condition, ruined out and rcfcued him from 
the executioner's hands, breathing revenge againft 
the Governor, and all that were concerned in put- 
ting this difhonour on the houfe and the whole 

I muft be forced to break off before I have inform- 
ed thee of half their tricks, left I fhould tire thee 
with the length of my letters. Befides, it is necef- 
fary for me to conclude, unlefs I would mifs my 
opportunity : For the port tarries for no man. 

Venerable Hadgi, live thou to enjoy the ferene 
pleafures of virtue and innocence, and pray for 
Mahmut, that he may never be ftained with the 
corruptions and vices of Infidels among whom he 

P ris, i8;h of t'ie 5th Moon, 
of ihe Year i66z. 


To the Chiaus BafFa. 

TH E French King's genius feems altogether 
bent on martial and politick affairs j and, 
though he allows fome moments to his love, yet the 
greater 1 : part of his time is confecrated to the necef- 
fary affairs of State, and to the improvement of mi- 
litary difcipline. This has been his courfe, ever 
lìnee the death of Cardinal Mazarine. This Mi- 
nifter, whilft he was living, endeavoured nothing 
fo earneftly as to divert the young Monarch from 
minding bufinefs, by plays, ballets, and other foft 
entertainments. But, as foon as he was dead, the 



King began, by degrees, to forfake his youthful re- 
creations, and look into the affairs of his govern- 

The firft bold itroke of regal authority which he 
gave was the fuppreffing of the Superintendant of 
the finances, a very ancient office in France, but 
much abufed of late by thofe who have enjoyed it. 
For, having the management of the royal revenues, 
it has been found out that they embezzled them to 
their own private ufe, purchaiing houfes, caftles, 
towns, and the faireii eftates in the kingdom, for 
them and their pofterity. 

The laft in this office was the Sieur Fouquet; 
who, befides the walte he made of the King's mo- 
ney in this kind, was laying up an extraordinary 
•provifion of arms and powder in Belleiile, a fea- 
port of France : Which gave the King fo great a 
fufpicion of his ill deilgns, that he went in perfon 
after him as far as Nantes -, and, being there far- 
ther informed of a private correfpondence held be- 
tween the Sieur Fouquet and fome malecontents of 
Cardinal de Retz's party, he caufed him to be ar- 
retted and fent prifoner to the wood of Vincennes : 
From whence he has fince been brought to the Baf- 
tile. This was done in the ninth moon of the laft 
year, and was the occafion of erecting a new Cham- 
ber of Juftice, to inquire into the conduci: of thofe 
who were employed by Fouquet, in the manage- 
ment of the finances. 

The great difcoveries this Chamber has already 
made, of the cheats aad tricks practifed by thofe 
through whofe hands the King's revenues have paf- 
{eó, will, it is thought, move the King to eftablifh 
it as a perpetual and fovereign Court of Inquifition : 
So that not the value of an afper fhall henceforth 
be paid out of the royal treafury, without the ap- 
probation of this Chamber. He has alfo retrenched 
many fuperfluous Officers in his houfhold, that he 
may the more eafily fupport the charges of thofe 
that are neceflary. 



Thou wilt better comprehend the wifdom of this 
Prince, when thou malt know that he trufts no- 
thing abfolutely to his Minifters, but pries into eve- 
ry thing himfelf. He examines matters of the fmal- 
left moment as narrowly as the moft important con- 
cerns. He makes daily reformations among his do- 
meftick fervants, and new-models both the army 
and the ftate, which is alio no fmall argument of 
his courage and the greatnefs of his fpirit ; in that 
he dares contradict the method of all his progeni- 
tors ; take the frame of this mighty government, as 
it were, to pieces ; and, having mended every thing 
that was amifs, join it together again, but after a 
pattern wholly depending on his own judgment. 
This has aftonifhed the greateft Statefmen of the 
age, who confider the boldnefs of the undertaking, 
and yet cannot find one falfe fiep in his meafures. 
For, whereas formerly the Princes of the blood, 
the Officers of the State, the Governors of Pro- 
vinces, with other Grandees, have given frequent 
troubles to the Kings of France, and not feldom 
raifed a civil war when any thing difgufted them (fo 
great was their power, and fo fmall their depend- 
ence on the King :) This Monarch has, by a hap- 
py effecì: of his judgment and refolution, given fo 
dextrous a turn to the whole fyftem of the publick, 
that the Princes find themfelves more aggrandifed 
than ever -, the Officers of the Crown perceive their 
dignity increafed with new luftre, and the Gover- 
nors of Provinces exercife a ftronger hand over their 
fubjecls ; yet all of them are reduced to an intire 
dependence on the King himfelf, not being in a ca-* 
pacity ever to rebel again. Which is efìeemed a 
miracle of policy. As he has thus gained the point 
of his fubjeéts at home, and eitablifhed his realm in 
the moft perfe£t ceconomy that can be imagined ; 
fo he has recovered a particular honour abroad, that 
till this time has been always difputed between the 
Crowns of France and Spain. 

It feems an AmbaiTador from Sweden arrived at 
the Englifh Court in the tenth moon of the lair, vear : 



The French Ambaifador fent his coaches to honour 
the publick entry, as is ufual between friends. But 
the Spanifli Ambaflador, defigning to affront the 
French, fent his coaches alfo to attend the ceremo- 
ny, accompanied by his own fervants, and a rabble 
of idle vperfons whom he had hired on purpofe, 
Thefe fell on the French, as they were pafling along 
the ftreet ; killed feveral of them, and by force flop- 
ped their coaches till thofe of the Spanifh Ambafla- 
dor were got before them ; the pre-eminence of 
place being the chief thing aimed at. 

This was highly refented at the French Court, 
and every body thought that a frefh war would break 
cut again between the two nations on this account. 
The angry young Monarch commanded the Spanifh 
Ambaflador refident here to depart the kingdom ; 
and, when another was fent to fupply his place, the 
King forbad him to enter his dominions. Com- 
plaints were made at Madrid, and all things tended 
to a rupture: Till, at length, the King of Spain 
having promifed to make fatisfaciion, his Ambafla- 
dor was received at this Court, who aflured the 
King, that his Mafter difavowed the action of his 
Minifter in England, and had given exprefs com- 
mand to all his Ambafladors in foreign Courts not 
to difpute the place with thofe of France, but to 
yield it to the latter, where they fhould both be 
prefent at the fame entry. This was declared in 
the prefence of thirty foreign Miniflers refiding at 
this Court, which has raifed a vafr. reputation to 
the King of France among all his neighbours, and 
-(truck the greater reverence into his fubjecls at 

In a word, he is looked upon as the moft. fortu- 
nate Prince inChriftendom, and every State courts 
his friendfhip. He gives the laws to the reli of 
Europe, yet remains himfelf arbitrary and above 

How long his affairs will continue at this height 
is known only to God, who exalts and abafes whom 
he pleafes j who is the fole Monarch of all things, 



reigning for ever, without the leaft fliadow of revo- 
lution or change. 

Paris, 1 2 th of the 7 th Moon, 
of the Year 1662. 

To the fame. 

IT was late when I finimed my other letter, be- 
ing the hour of the Devil's range, when the in- 
fernal fpirits are permitted to air themfelves in this 
upper world. Methought I heard the clattering 
echo of the gates of Paradife, which are fhut at 
that feafon to keep out the daemons from entering 
and difturbing the repofe of the BlefTed. This made 
me conclude i'o abruptly, left fome bufy fcribe of 
the dark regions mould have inferted evil in my let- 
ter, whilft I was afleep. I recommended myfelf to 
God andwenttobed. After two hours reft, awaking, 
I perceived, by the crowing of the cocks, that the 
troops of hell were retired to their dens, chaced 
down by Arciurus, and the guardian conftellations 
of the South, and by the angels of the fecond watch. 
Then I arofe and chearfully addrefled myfelf to 
God, praifing him for the fucceffive benefits of day 
and night, and extolling his magnificent works, 
with the exquifite order that he has eftablifhed 
in the world. Remembering alfo, that I was a 
man, and not born to fleep, but to ferve the Grand 
Signior and my friends, I readily fet pen to paper 
again, to give thee a farther account of the French 
King and his Court, with fuch occurrences as have 
happened of late. 

This Monarch is very lingular in his conduci: 

and manner of life, not brooking to be confined to 

the maxims of others, but fquaring all his actions 

by rules of his own : Yet it is difficult to find fault 

5 in 


in his proceedings. He hears the advice of his 
Counfellors and friends ; and, when they have done, 
he convinces them in many things, that they are 
under a miftake ; which makes them admire the 
force of his reafon, and the readinefs of his wit, 
efpecially when they fee the event anfwering ex- 

Neither is he altogether fo intent on ftate-mat- 
ters, bat that he fometimes gives himfelf the diver- 
fion of a familiar difcourfe with the moft ingenious 
artifts of all forts, who find themfelves much im- 
proved by the quicknefs of his invention, and the 
folidily of his judgment in the mechanicks : For 
he is an excellent gun-fmith, fword-cutler, arrow- 
maker, and every thing that becomes a King to 

He is a good architect alfo, and takes vaft delight 
in buildings, having laid the foundation of feveral 
magnificent ftruótures, palaces of a noble defign, 
and intended to outvy the moft polite and glorious 
fabricks of ancient Greece and Rome. Fori tell 
thee this Monarch would not willingly come fhort 
of any of the Caefars. 

At the beginning of this year, he aggrandifed his 
Court by a promotion of fixty-two Knights of the 
Holy Spirit. I have often mentioned this order in 
my letters to the Minifters of the Porte ; and thou, 
that haft been in France, knoweft, that it is the 
next ftep to being made a Peer of the realm. I mail 
only inform thee, that, during the ceremony of 
this laft promotion, the Dukes of Vendofme and 
Longueviile had a feud about precedency, which at 
laft was adjufted in favour of the former. In a 
word, the King declared the Houfe of Vendofme 
to have a right of priority before all other Princes, 
and to fucceed in the throne itfelf after the Houfe 
pf Bourbon. 

This is looked upon as a bold effort of royal 
power, and has ftartled all the Court. No lefs fur- 
prifed were they to fee the Duke of Lorrain refign 



all his eftates to the King of France, referring on- 
ly the pofTeffion of them, during his life. 

And now the King, having weathered the point 
with all his enemies, both foreign and domeitick, 
ftudies nothing more earneftly, than to divert his 
Queen, and let his fubjeóts tafte the fweets of peace, 
the effect, of his matchlefs fortune, to which even 
Crowned Heads find themfelves compelled to (loop 
and fubmit. 

On the fifth of the foregoing moon, by his ap- 
pointment, was held a tournament or caroufal, as 
the French call it. This is a fort of exercife on 
horfeback, in imitation of the ancient manner of 
fighting with fpear and fhield. 

The place where they ran was railed about, and 
magnificent chiofes erected for the Queen and La- 
dies of the Court to fit in, as fpectators. The di- 
verfion was very pompous, and the King was one 
of the combatants. The reft were the Duke of 
Orleans, the King's brother ; the Prince of Conde, 
the Duke of Enguien, fon to the Prince, and the 
Duke of Guife. Each of thefe led a troop of horfe 
into the field. That of the King was habited after 
the manner of the old Roman Knights. The Duke 
of Orleans's made a figure like the Perfians : The 
Prince of Conde's reprefented the Ottomans : The 
Duke of Enguien's troops were in Indian habits; 
and the Duke of Guife's appeared like the favages 
of America. It would be too tedious to defcribe 
the particular magnificences of each. Suffice it to 
lay they were all prodigioufly majeftick and rich in 
their equipage. The courfes alio they made were 
brave and full of gallantry. But the prize, which 
was a diamond of great value, was adjudged to the 
Prince of Conde by the Queen-mother. 

One of the former Kings of France loft his life 
at this royal exercife, being run through the eye in- 
to the brain by the fpear of an Englifh Knight, then 
at the French Court, and one of the combatants : 
For which reafon the following Kings of France 
forbore to expofe themfelves to the like danger: 
2 But 


But this young Mars fears nothing, being as ven- 
turous and bold as was Sultan Amurath, the tro- 
phies of whofe victorious combat with the Perfian 
challenger, at the fiege of Babylon, hang up in the 
treaftiry to this day, as monuments of his invinci- 
ble courage and ftrength. Sultan Achmetalfo took 
great delight in throwing the lance with his Cour- 
tiers in the Atmeidan, Thefe are fports fit for 
Kings and great Generals : And fome of the Ro- 
man Ca?fars themfelves would play the gladiator. 

It is not lawful for me to cenfure or reflect on the 
actions of my Sovereign. But I will tell thee what 
the French fay of him by way of contempt, ' that 
* he never combated, in his own perfon, with any 
< thing but timorous hares and hinds.' It makes me 
blufh to hear the great Emperor of the Eaft thus 
blafphemed by the profane mouths of Infidels. And 
it were to be wifhed he would do fome furprifing 
action to raife himfelf another character. I fay no 
more, but recommend thee to God and the White 

Paris, nth of the 7th Moon, 
of the Year 1662. 


To Zeidi Alamanzi, a Merchant at Venice. 

THOU haft obliged me beyond expectation 
in that ample hiitory of thy life which thy 
letter contains. I efteem thee not the wprfe, be- 
caufe thou waft born of Chriitian parents, but ra- 
ther put the higher value on thy merit, in that, be- 
ing bred up in fuperftition and error, thou haft vo- 
luntarily embraced the truth without any profpecl 
of advancing thy intereft. 

When a man of a noble ftock, born to riches and 
honours, bred in foftnefles and delights, and actu- 


aKy poiTefTed of a fair eftatc, mall thus abandon his 
country, his relations, friends, and acquaintance, 
with all his native rights and enjoyments, purely for 
the love of God, religning himfelf wholly to the 
will of Deftiny, and the conduci of Providence, 
without confulting his own eafe and delight in this 
world ; it is an evident lign of a faithful heart, and 
that his integrity is without ftam. 

All this, and much more, it feems, thou haft 
done, and therefore thou canft not fail of being 
happy in this world and in Paradife. 

I am extremely pleafed in reading the various ad- 
ventures of thy youth, thy early inclinations to vi- 
ni foreign countries, and thy actual travels through 
Europe, Alia, and Africa. This is the only way 
to learn true and complete wifdom. For a man edi- 
fies a thoufand times more by his own perfonal expe- 
rience of things, than by all the molt elegant defcrip- 
tions that can be made by others : Befides, the ad- 
vantages of becoming expert in the feveral languages 
and dialects of the earth -, which he can never learn 
ib perfectly in books, as by corrvsrfing with the 
natives of each country through which he pafles. 

Beyond all this, there is an infinite pleafure in fee- 
ing the variety of objects which every-where expofe 
themfelves to a traveller's eye. There is nothing 
more delightful to human nature than to try all 
things. Man is cloyed with what is too familiar to 
him. The moft magnificent palace w t ou Id appear 
like a prifon to him that was always confined to it. 
The greeneft fields and moft fhady groves would 
afford us no refrefhment, if we had not liberty to 
ilraggle out of them when we pleafed. Man is na- 
turally wild as other animals, and it is as bad as 
death to be reftrained of his freedom. I had rather, 
at certain feafons, range a wildernefs, all over-run 
with weeds and briars, than in the moft regular and 
fragrant garden in the world. I would willingly 
chufe the fatigue of climbing up a high, fteep, crag- 
gy mountain, for the fake of a new and larger proi- 
pecT:, before the eafe of walking always in a low 

Vol. VI. F valley, 


valley, or even plain, though graced with never fo 
many inviting objects, which rauft always be the 
fame': So fulfome are the very pleafures we are dai- 
ly accuftomed to. 
' I doubt not but that it was very agreeable to thee 
in thy journies, when every remove thou madeft 
from itage to ftage promifed thee fomething novel 
and frefh. A man in fuch cafes is apt to think the 
fun himfelf new who has fhined upon him from his 
nativity : The air, the earth, and waters appear not 
the fame elements in different places ; or, it" our rea- 
fon convinces us their nature is not changed, yet 
we look upon them as mafqueraders every day in a 
new drefs ; efpecially when we go from one region 
and climate to another, the ftrangenefs of the dif- 
guife is heightened. So infinite a variety prefents 
itfelf to thole who travel. 

But nothing affords a man greater delight than to be 
familiarly acquainted with the different habits, laws, 
cuftoms, manners, and religions of mortals like him- 
felf. To fee them in one part of the world adoring 
the fun, becaufe he mines upon them but once a 
year, whilft all the reif of the time they are fhut up 
in continual darknefs, very near being llarved with 
cold, and making hard fhifts to live : In another, 
to behold them grimacing, and hear them curfing 
that glorious planet, becaufe he is always too near 
them, rendering their countries barren, drying up 
their water, and fcorching their perfons almoit to 
death, muff needs be de-ightful to a contemplative 
man. And, for aught we know, the laughter of 
Democritus might be the refult of as good thoughts 
as Heraclitus's tears. Who would not fmile to fee 
iome paying divine honours to the fcare-crow of 
their garden, or a tree, a hog, a dog, or any thing they 
riril caff their eyes on in the morning, as they do in 
Lapland ? And yet who can forbear to weep, when he 
fees men profeiling to believe the laws of Mofes and 
the Meffias (who both preached up the divine unity) 
pretending to the pureft religion in the world, and 
bred in the ftudy of the fciences, worfhip itocks and 



ftones, pictures and images, nails, rags, bones, 
hairs, bits of old wood, or any thing that their cun- 
ning priefts impofe upon them as adorable. 

Happy art thou, Zeidi, who art freed from thefe 
fuperftitions of the Nazarenes ; and thrice happy in 
that thou haft changed them for the faith unbie- 
mifhed, the doctrines of truth and reafon, the prac- 
tices of fincere morality and virtue. Thou haft not 
fhunned a rock to fali into a quickfand, nor aban- 
doned idolatry to fink into atheifm : But thou haft 
efcaped from narrow gulphs and ftreights into a free 
and open fea ; from the dark fogs and mifts of frozen 
Chriftianity to the bright empire of the Ofmans, 
the ferene company of True Believers, where cha- 
rity and zeal are in their genuine and primitive 

Since the time that thou firft liftedft up thy fin- 
ger to Heaven, and madeft a confemon of one God 
and Mahomet his apoftle, none of the imaums or 
mollahs have ever attempted to circumvent thy rea- 
fon with feigned malice, foolifh pilgrimages, tales 
of old women, fictions of poets, or any holy frauds. 
Thou perceiveft nothing but downright integrity in 
the converfation of the Faithful. Whereas the 
Chriftians, whom thou haft juftly deferted, have a 
thoufand windings and turnings, foldings and intri- 
cacies in their doctrines and lives. So that it is almoft: 
as eafy for a blind man to walk from Paris to Con- 
stantinople, as for thefe Inridels to grope out the 
way to Paradile, through io many meanders and 
mazes : They are involved in a perfeci: circle of er- 
ror and vice. 

Praife be to God, who planted the moon in the 
heavens, and caufes the ftars to dart their refrefhing 
rays by night, thou art happily delivered out of their 
fnares. Let not thy reiidence now among them 
ever tempt thee to return to the religious vanities of 
holy trifles, which have once made thee fick at 
the heart. Remember, that thou beareft in thy 
body the mark of a True Believer, the leal of a 
great facrament, the character of a profound myl- 
F 2 tery, 


tcry, circumcifion, the emblem of purity, by which 
thou art more ennobled, than by the blood of the Po- 
lonian Lord, thy father, which frreams in thy veins : 
For now thou art incorporated into the fociety and li- 
neage of Ibrahim, the illuftrious patriarch and friend 
of God. Coniider that thou art, as it were, ingraft- 
ed into the glorious flock of the Ifmaelites, born to 
fubdue all things, and, in the determined time, to 
poflefs the empire of the univerfe. Thou haft the 
honour alfo to ferve the Grand Signior, Lord of the 
climates and feas, Majeftick Heir of the Ottoman 
Houfe, Shadow of God on earth. 

Hold faft therefore the profeflion of an unblame- 
able faith • and, whatever temptations thou mayeft 
meet with, keep thy mind always fixed on the un- 
feen joys of Paradife, the crown of juft and faith- 
ful men, the reward of fuch as adhere to God and 
his Prophet without flinching. 

Mahmut falutes thee in imagination, with a part- 
ing kifs, and an affectionate lqueefe of the hand ; 
which thou knoweft was, in all ages, a token of 
hearty good-will and friendfhip. 

Paris, 15th of the 7th Moon, 
of the Year 1662. 


To the Kaimacham. 

THERE is like to be a breach between this 
Court and that of Rome, if the Pope does not 
condefcend to the demands of the French King, 
who flylés himfelf the eldeft fon of the church, and 
therefore highly refents an indignity that has been 
done him of late, in.the perfon of the Duke of Cre- 
qui, his Roman Court. 

It feems the Pope's guards, on the 20th of the 8th 
moon, made an attempt on the life of that Minif ter 



and of his wife : They alfo put barbarous abufes 
on all the French that were in that city : Infomuch 
that the Duke and Duchefs of Crequi were <jbliged 
to quit Rome privately, and retire into Tufcany ; be- 
ing advifed to take this courfe by all the Cardinals 
and other Grandees that are friends to France. 

The King received news of this by an exprefs 
which came from the Duke of Crequi, on the nth 
of the 9th moon. And he was paffionately touch- 
ed at fo facrilegious an injury, whereby he is not 
only wronged himfelf, but the law of nations is vi- 
olated in a raoft notorious manner. 

Wherefore, to fhew his refentment, on the fame 
day that the courier came from Rome, the King,or- 
dered the Lieutenant of his guards to tell the Pope's 
Nuncio at this Court, that he muft forthwith de- 
part the kingdom, under the command of thirty 
horfe. This was performed accordingly ; and the 
Nuncio was hurried away immediately, without fuf- 
fering him to fpeak with any perfon living, fave 
thole who were to accompany him to the frontiers : 
And this order was publicklv proclaimed in Paris. 
The King alfo wrote to the Pope, demanding fatil- 
faétion for fo horrible an outrage, and caufed dif- 
patches to be fent to all the Cardinals in Rome, ad- 
vifing them to contribute what lay in their power 
towards a good underitanding between the Pope and 
him, proteftingthat, otherwise, the calamities which 
might follow were not to be laid to his charge. 
This is a modeft way of threatening ufed by Chnf- 
tian Princes, who do not always fpeak in thunder, 
like our Eaftern Monarchs when they menace war. 

I relate this as a thing which, though itappear of 
fmall moment at the beginning, yet its confequences 
may be great and extenfive, if the French King and 
the Pope mould come to an open rupture. All the 
Princes in Europe would find themfelves engaged on 
one fide or other, and we MufTulmans might live 
to fee the whole fiate of Chriftendom disjoint d, 
alienated, and imbroiled in wars among themfelves ; 
whereby they would lay their countries naked and 
F 3 Open 


open to the invincible arms of the Ottomans, a li- 
neage of high renown, and defined to iubdue all 

But it is thought the Holy Father at Rome will 
no farther provoke fo daring and powerful a Monarch 
as him of France, by juififying the infolences of 
his Janifaries, who proceeded to that heighth of 
fury, as to discharge guns into the windows of the 
French AmhaiTador, killed feveral of his retinue, 
and afiaulted the Duchefs of Crequi in her coach, 
as £he paffed ail the ftreets. 

iliuftrious Minifter, thefe are violations not prac- 
tifed by the moil barbarous favages. And it is an 
evident iign of decaying empire, where the publick 
faith is thus perhdioufly broken. God infatuates the 
Infidels, that he may fpeedily bring them to ruin : 
Whereas he daily inlightens the juft followers of 
the Prophet, and directs them in the ways of prof* 
perity and peace. 

Paris, 3d of the nth Moon, 
of the Year 1662. 


To Mohammed, the illuftrious Eremite of 
Mount Uriel in Arabia. 

IN the name of God benign and merciful, I ap- 
proach the refidence of great fanctimony, the 
tremendous folitude, the cave bleiTed by frequent 
vifitations of angels, and by the former prefence of 
the moli: fublime among mortals, Mahomet, the 
Legate of the Eternal, the Plenipotentiary of Alia, 
King of heaven and earth. Alia ! There is but 
one ! whofe name refounds through all the orbs 
above, when pronounced by the faithful adorers of 
the divine unity on earth : And the eccho thereof, 
from the adamantine gates of Paradife, reaches the 



abyfsof hell, ftriking the infernal fpirits with hor- 
ror and aftonifhment. They tremble at the found 
of the dreadful word which chains them up in their 
prifons of darknefs. Whereas, had they faith, thev 
would rather rejoice, believing, that the fame word 
will one day releafe them from their torments. For 
fuch is the clemency of the Omnipotent, as our ho- 
ly doctors teach. 

Oh Mohammed, friend of the Moft High, and 
tenant to his Prophet ; I have experienced, that it 
is good and wholefome to begin every thing we do or 
fay in the name of God. Whofoever does other- 
wife either fails in the progrefs, or the end of his 
delign, and remains in confufion. Tagot creeps 
into his enterprife, and through malice fpoils it, 
robbing a man of his crown ; or Negidher, the fpi- 
rit of envy, winds himfelf in and intangles it : Or 
Ablis, the daemon of melancholy, caffs a damp on 
it, and bereaves the undertaker of His joy. Such is 
the fate of thofe who, through profanenefs, (loth, 
or contempt, forget to pay the due veneration we 
owe to the Author and Source of providence and 
good fuccefs. 

Let us not therefore think the time mif-fpent, 
which is taken up in the praifes of him who has 
neither beginning nor end, P'ather of all the gene- 
rations in this vilible world, and that other which is 
concealed from mortals. He is the governor of our 
lives, and our fole patron inali neceflitier. Let us 
extol and magnify his attributes without end. 

I am by nature contemplative and thoughtful ; 
but I mud needs acknowledge, that I owe to'my 
education among the MufTulmans the force of mv 
faith and religion. The various turns of fortune 
and experience which I have had in the world could 
never yet blot out the imprefTion of my early years, 
or diminifh the reverence I have for our holy Pro- 
phets. I often revolve in my mind the feries of pafl 
ages, and the hiftories of former times, the origin of 
nations, and the various laws, religions, wars, and 
changes. I traverfe the different epocha's of the 
F 4 poderi ty 


pciTerity of Ibrahim and the Gentiles, comparing 
the date of Ifracl's tranfmigration out of Egypt 
with the years of Nabonailar and the Olympiads, 
In all cf them I find great obfeurity, contradiction, 
and doubtful nefs, which puts me upon examining 
the records of Egypt 2nd the AfTyrians. The anti- 
quity of both is very great, and yet it comes far 
fliort of the Chinefe chronology, and that of the 
Indian Bramins. 

When I have tired my fouj with a vain fearch of 
that which can never be discovered ; when I con- 
lider the probability of an univerfal deluge in the 
time of Noah, and the arguments which almoft 
derr onerate the contrary, comparing this with the 
flood of Deucalion, and that other of Ogyges : In 
a word, when I refTe£r. on the number! efs incon- 
gruities that are found in the regifters of paft ages* 
F cannot but conclude the:c is as much rea fen for 
me to believe that God has determinately thus dark- 
ened the knowledge of mortals, as that he confound- 
ed their language at Babel, according to the cele- 
brated relation of Mofes. Whence it will be but 
loft labour for us, who live in thefe latter times, to 
feek for any afiurance, or certainty of the truth, in 
matters of fo remote and early a date. 

Wherefore, leaving every nation to their own tra- 
ditions, the Jews to the manufcripts of Mofes and 
their Rabbies ; the Gentiles to the fragments of 
Hermes Trlfmcgiftus, Orpheus, Homer, Hefiod, 
Theophraftus, and other Sages of Egypt, Phoeni- 
cia, and Greece; I, for my part, acquiefce in the 
volume of Majelly, the great Alcoran ; and the 
writings of our holy Doctors, Arabians, the fons 
of Ifmael ; not puzzling myfelf with endlefs dif- 
putes and queftions ; not cenfuringcthers who wor- 
ship God after their own way and the documents 
of their fathers ; but firmly believing, that he who 
ferves God according to the dictates of his reafon ; 
who is juft to men and beafts, and in all things 
conferves an innocent purity of life; is as accepta- 
ble to the great Creator, and impartial Judge of the 



univerfe, as he that has had the happinefs to be in- 
ftruCted in the poiitive injunctions of Heaven, the 
revealed will of the Omnipotent. And this I take 
to be the fenfe of our holy Lawgiver, of the Mef- 
fias, and of all the prophets in general. 

Doubtlefs, that fuperlatively Merciful and In- 
dulgent connives at the frailty of mortals ; he pi- 
ties the invincible ignorance of fome, and the fatal 
neceffities of others. He knows the infinite variety 
of our bodily confutations, and the equally diffe- 
rent bent of our fouls. He confiders the force of 
the elements and climates wherein we live, and the 
unconquerable influence of the ftars under which 
we were born. The whole fyftem of human na- 
ture, with its moil hidden circumftances, is expofed 
to the eyes of him who fees all things. He is no 
Granger to the anatomy of his own works; there- 
fore he requires no more of men than can be expect- 
ed from the faculties with which he has indued 
them : Neither will he damn any man for an invo- 
luntary evil. 

O Mohammed, this is my faith, my hope, and 
my confidence. Otherwife I mould defpair every 
moment. If I am guilty of error and prefumption, 
correct me in thy wifdom. For, before thee, I am 
but as an idiot. 

P^risr, zid of the iath Moon, 
of the Year j66z. 


To Hafnadar-Baffi, Chief-Treafurer to his 

TH E French have newly felt the motions of 
a joy, whofe birth and growth was «like that 
of a mufhroom, fudden and fwift, the produci of 
a very little time, and which ended in mourning 
F 5 and 


and tears. The moon of November beheld a daugh- 
ter born to the Queen of France; but that planet 
had hardly carried the news through all the figns of 
the zodiack, and commanded the Jtars of France to 
celebrate a dunalma, before fhe was obliged to be 
the meiTenger of more fad tidings, and to proclaim 
the death of this young Princefs to the conftellations 
that amited at her birth. 

In a word : She was born on the 18th of the nth 
moon, and died on the 30th of the 12th. It looks 
as if me only came into the v/orld to be a witnefs 
of the conci ufion of the peace between her father 
Lewis XIV. and her grandfather Philip the King 
ot Spain, and fo return to the region of feparate 

This peace was in general terms figned and fealed 
long ago, but there remained fome difficulties in ad- 
juring the limits of the P'rench conquefls, which 
were referred to the management of Commiffioners 
on both fides : And thefe, after they had debated 
the matter for the fpace of two years at St. Omer's, 
Arras, and Metz, at length finifhed their negocia- 
tion on the 25th of the nth moon of the lait year. 
Which was juft (even days after the nativity of the 
French Princefs. 

This royal infant alfo lived to fee Dunkirk, one 
of the ftrongeft. fea-ports in the world, re-delivered 
to her father by the Englifh, in whofe hands it had 
been ever lìnee it was firff. taken from the Spaniards. 
The King took pofTeinon of this important place in 
his own perfon,* entering the town on the 2d of the 
laft moon. 

It is looked upon as a grand overfight in the Eng- 
lifh thus tamely to part with a fortrefs which is in- 
expugnable by land, and commands the Northern 
feas. But money over-rules all other confiderations. 
And, it feems, the Englifh Court had occafion for 

There is lately a good underftanding eflablifhed 
between this King and the Emperor of Germany. 
They often write friendly letters one to another, 



and feem to be perfectly reconciled. To fpeak the 
truth, this may be called the pacifick year among 
the inhabitants of Europe : For, excepting ibme 
fkirmifhes and bravadoes of war between the Spa- 
niards and the Portuguefe, all the reft of Chriftendom 
is in peace. And the Portuguefe have fo ftrengthened 
themfelves, by marrying their Infanta to the Eng- 
lifh King, that, what through his afliftance, and 
the aid of France, they have almoft. reduced Spain 
to a neceffity of making peace. 

Thou wilt fay the Portuguefe have over-reached 
the Englifh in the dowry they give with their In- 
fanta. This is only the town of Tangier in Bar- 
bary. A place which will coft them far more to de- 
fend againft the Moors, than it is really worth. For 
thofe bold Africans will perpetually affault the town, 
and oblige the King of England to maintain a vaft 
garrifon in it, befides a multitude of other expences. 
This makes the Portuguefe fecretly fmile, to find 
themfelves handfomely rid of two great and burden- 
fome charges, a daughter of the royal blood, and 
an old fortrefs of no ufe or fervice, fave only to di- 
minifh the publick treafure, and make away with 
fome thoufands of men every year. 

Illuitrious Grandee, it is no fmall encouragement 
to the poor exiled Mahmut, that, though he be ma- 
ligned, flandered, and perfecuted by his enemies, 
yet he ftill finds protection and friendfliip from the 
principal Minifters. And that, inftead of checks 
and reproaches, to which I was formerly accuftom- 
ed, my falary is now augmented ^o the proportion 
of my necefiary expences. Money is fent me with 
a liberal hand, and my flanderers are put to filence 
and fhame. 

Thou mayeft acquaint the Divan, that there is 
now at this Court the eldeft fon to the King of 
Denmark. What his bufinefs is, people conjecture 
varioufly. Some fay it is love ; others affirm it 
was only the defire of feeing foreign Courts drew this 
Prince from his native country. 

F 6 Thou 


Thou mayeft alfo inform them, that the Duke of 
Savoy has married a Princefs of the blood-royal; 
they call her Mad emoi felle de Valois. Eliachim the 
Jew lies dangerouily fick of a fever. 

As fpr me, who never had my perfect health fince 
I came to Paris, yet I retain a found mind, and a 
heart inviolably devoted to the intereft of the Grand 
Signior : Whom God long preferve on the throne 
of the Ottomans. 

Paris, 10th of the ift Moon, 
of the Yeur 1663. 

To the Kaimacharrù 

HE R E is a man come to this city, a Calabria^ 
by birth, and of all countries by education : 
For he has been a traveller from his infancy, if what 
he relates of himfelf be true. He fpeaks all, or 
moft of the languages of Europe very fluently,, and 
is reforted to by people of divers countries, under 
the character of a fortune-teller and phyfician. He 
performs both parts to the admiration of all that 
have been with him* 

The Princes and Nobles of France vifit him dai- 
ly, and fo do perfons of meaner birth. They difco- 
ver to him their fecret maladies, and this Apollo 
Seldom fails of fuccefs in curing them. He beftows 
ten hours a day in converfing freely with people of 
all ranks and 1 qualities, healing the difeafes of fome, 
and telling others their future deftinies. 

I went to his chamber one day, not to learn my 
fate (for I have little faith in modern prophets or 
aitrologcrs; nor to be cured of any diftemper, 
having no efteem for quacks and empiricks ; beiides, 
T was in good health at that time) but curiofity was 
th* only motive which led me thither, that I might 



improve myfelf, in other refpecls, by this Granger's 
company, and learn fomething which I knew not be- 
fore of foreign Courts, whereby I might become more 
ferviceable to the Grand Signior in this ftation, and 
farther unravel the fecrets of Chriftian Princes» 
For fo it often falls out, that a man reaps fome con- 
siderable advantage from the fociety of travellers and 
men of experience : And I had good reafon to> 
hope for fome profit by this man's acquaintance, 
who is thought worthy to be courted by the Gran- 
dees of France. 

Wherefore I addrefTed myfelf to him with abun- 
dance of ceremony and regard ; ufing alfo as much, 
diflimulation as I thought neceflary to conceal my- 
felf, and thedefign I had in coveting his friendfhip. 
I feemed a great admirer of judicial alirology, and 
told him I was very ambitious to learn the rudi- 
ments of that fcience from him, having heard his 
fkill highly commended, not only by vulgar fame, 
but by the mouths of men of fenfe and quality, who 
gave him a fair character. I faid a great deal more 
to infinuate myfelf into his good opinion. But, 
there being company with him, he returned my 
compliments with much civility, and defired me to 
come to him at a more convenient fea-fon, and to 
leave my name, that he might order his Servants to 
give me a kind reception at any time, if he him lei f 
fnould be out of the way, becaufe it was common 
to fend many from the door without introducing 
them. I told him my name was Titus of Moldavia, 
and that my bufinefs at Paris was to ftudy in the 
Academy, in order to my preferment in the church. 
When he had taken this down in writing, with the 
hour and ihinute of the day, after the manner of af- 
trologers, he begged me to excufe the neceflity he 
was under of returning to his company ; and fo I 
took my leave. 

Not many days after, I went to him again, full 
of hopes that I mould benefit much by his compa- 
ny. But, as foon as he faw me, he furprifed me wish 
this language ; 



4 Sir, you have ventured much in coming to me ; 
4 for now it is in my power to difcover you and your 

* bufmefs in this city. But, if I mould betray any 
4 man, my gift would be taken from me. I am nei- 
4 ther a follower of Mofes, Jefus, or Mahomet, nor 
4 of any feci that is new extant on earth : But I 
4 adore the fpirit and foul of the univerfe, which is 
4 eternal and infinite. Therefore I hate no man for 

* his religion, let it be what it will. And you, that 
4 are not what you feem to be, fhall receive no more 
4 hurt from me in this place, than the Coadjutor of 

* Paris : For I am of no party or faction. All men 
4 are equally my friends, who do me no wrong ; 
4 and every place is my home.' 

Thou mayeft imagine that I was in no fmall afto- 
nifhment at this difcourfe. But recollecting my 
fpirits, and confidering it had always been my opi- 
nion that thefe fortune-tellers deal by confederacy ; 
and fufpecting that, my name being known to him 
fo long before, it was not difficult for him to inform 
himfelf fomething of me ; or that fomebody of his 
acquaintance, who knew me, had feen me go in and 
out from him, and fo told him fome of my circum- 
ftances ; I made a fhew of going away dilTatisfied, 
faying, 4 It will be but loft time to hearken any 
4 longer to you ; for I perceive you know nothing 
4 of me, in telling me I am not the man I feem to 
4 be.' • No,' replied he, with an obliging kind of 
earneftnefs, 4 You are an Arabian, and ferve fome 
4 Eaftern Prince incognito.' Then he went on, 
and told me in a few words fome former pafTages of 
my life. He hinted at the dangers I had been in, 
during my refidence at Paris ; mentioned my capti- 
vity at Palermo, and the rencounter I had with 
my old Sicilian Matter. To be brief, he told mefo 
many other things which I knew to be true of my- 
felf/tbat I grew very uneafy in his company, and 
yet durft not depart from him on a hidden, or (hew 
any difcontent. But, muttering together all the dif- 
fimulation and artifice I could, 1 turned the dif- 
courfe to other fubjects ; feeming very importunate 



to learn aftrology of him, and promifing him a 
large gratuity, if he would teach me, I fairly took 
leave, refolving, if pofiible, never to fee him more. 
Never was a man in greater anxiety than I was, 
when I came home to my chamber, and pondered 
on what had pafled between this ftranger and me. I 
am not credulous of miracles, prophecies, or pre- 
tended revelations. Yet, I proteft folemnly, I could 
not forbear thinking he was indued with an extraor- 
dinary faculty of divining ; or, at leaft, that he was 
an excellent aftrologer. Nay, to this day, I know 
not what to conclude of him. He may, for aught 
I know, be a daemon incarnate; or, perhaps, he is 
a magician. Sometimes I think one thing, and 
fometimes another. If he performs thefe prcphetick 
parts by confederacy, ftill I am at a lofs how he 
ftiould come to know fo much of me, who always 
thought myfelf the privateft man in Paris, and have 
neglected no methods that v/ere proper to render me 
fuch in truth. Then I fufpect my old Sicilian Maf- 
ter is one of this man's correlpondents, and has told 
him fome of my circumftances : For I have no rea- 
fon to be jealous of Eliachim the Jew. It muir be 
fome fuch way, or elfe he is more than a man, that 
can thus readily penetrate into the fecrets of a 

Sage Kaimacham, I pray God defend thee from 
the fnares of counterfeits and falfe pretenders. 

Paris, 13th of the i ft Moon, 
of the Year 1663. 




To the Captain BafTa. 

WH A T I am going to relate would feem in- 
credible to myfelf, and for that reafon I 
would not give it any room in a letter to all the dif- 
cerning Minifters of the Porte* were it not con- 
firmed by letters from feveral merchants in the North 
parts of Holland to their correspondents in this 
city. And they all agree, that, on the 9th day of 
the moon of November, a ftrange man was feen to 
float on the fea near the more, being fupported by a 
piece of timber, on which he fat with a bottle of 
itrong waters in his hand. Thofe who firft beheld 
this fpeclacle were fifhing in a fmall boat, and 
judging him to be the relick of fome fhipwreck (for 
there had been violent tempefts in thofe feas about 
that time) made up to him, and took him into their 
fkiff. He exprefTed his gratitude for their kindnefs- 
in the beft manner he could (for nobody underftood 
his language.) And,, when he came amore, he fell 
on his knees ; and, having lifted up his eyes and 
hands to heaven, he proftrated himfelf, and kifled 
the earth. His garments were made of the fkins of 
flfhes, the hair of his head of a flaxen colour, and 
he feemed not to be faint for want of fuftenancs : 
Which made every one conclude, that he had kept 
up his fpirits with that chymical liquor in the bottle, 
which was near half emptied. 

As foon as he faw the rifing moon, he fell on his 
face and muttered certain barbarous words, knock- 
ing his forehead againft the ground : Then he rofe 
and danced after a wild manner, finging pretty na- 
tural airs j and at every ftep, with his right hand 
extended, pointed to that planet, exprefling both in 
tone and actions much devotion and love. 

Many learned men were fent for, to confider of 
this ftranger, and, if poflible, by figns or other 
mean?, to difcover from whence he came, and what 



fate or accident had thus abandoned him to the fury 
of the winds and waves, to the extremity of hunger, 
cold, and watching; and to the devouring jaws of 
fca-monfters. But all their efforts were unfuccef9- 
ful ; they fpoke to him in feveral languages, and he 
anfwered them, but itili in a dialect different from 
any of theirs, and altogether unknown. He feemed 
to utter his words in a tone between whiffling and 
finding ; which made fome conclude he was a Chi- 
nefe, becaufe that people pronounce many of their 
letters after the fame manner. Sodo the inhabitants 
of Tonquin and Malabar, with other kingdoms in 
the Eaft of Afia; and letters with them are as fig- 
nificant as words with the Europeans. They {hew- 
ed him globes and maps of the world, done by fc- 
veral hands, and in various languages, with parti- 
cular charts of all the maritime regions on earth. 
But, to no other purpofe, than to excite his devo- 
tion afrefh to the moo% whofe refemblance he faw 
on fome of thofe papers. He would fmile at the 
fight, kifs his fore-finger, and, with a religious 
complaifance, touch the figure of that planet : 
Then, feeming to be in a wonderful good humour, 
he would turn round and fall a dancing, with hit 
arms ftretched, and turned in the fame pofture as 
thofe who ufe caftanets or cymbals : Singing all the 
while a fort of inarticulate founds, but furprifingly 
mufical and fweet. So that nobody knew what to 
make of him. 

He appeared very temperate, moderi, and refign- 
ed, refufing no meats or drinks that were offered 
him, yet neither eat nor drank to excefs ; neither 
was he difeòntented at his lodging, or any other 
ufage ; though they tried to vex him feveraf ways, 
that they might fee how he would vent his paffion. 
But he fmiled at all, and fubmitted patiently to 
every thing they impofed on him. 

One thing was obfervable, that, wherever he faw 
any water, he would run to it immediately, and 
wafh himfelf as well as he could in thofe circum- 
Hances, never forgetting to fprinkle fome towards 



that part of the heaven where the moon was vifible. 
And, when they led him into the fields or gardens, 
he would crop the grafs and flowers, and, with a 
compoied look, would throw them up in the air, ad- 
ding fuch religious geftures as convinced everyone 
that he did it in honour of ibme power above. Va- 
rious were the conjectures of men about him ; fome 
were of one opinion, and others of a quite different. 
Nobody could poiitively conclude any thing. Nei- 
ther is it poffible, as I am informed, for the wifeìì: 
men in thofe parts to find out this myftery. 

Perhaps, he is fuch another as Imaum Rapibabet, 
a Perfian writer mentions, who, in the year of the 
Hegira 502, was taken up by a merchant-fhip of 
India, in the Streights of Babel-Mandel, pretend- 
ing to be dumb, but capable of hearing, writing, 
and expreffing himfelf in feveral other ways, if any 
body could have underftood his language. At Jafr, 
he was found to be an Ethiopian flave, run away 
from his Matter ; an ingenious fellow, and one that 
fpoke all the languages of thofe parts ; and there- 
fore, that he might be admired, would be fure to 
write in a character of his own invention, which 
the greateft fages could not read. 

Mighty Balla, thou encountered: on that element 
with itrange monfters, and creatures under no name 
or predicament that is known ; yet none fo terrible 
and dangerous as cheats and impoftors. From 
which I pray Heaven defend thee and me : For they 
infect both the fea and the land. 

Paris, 17th of the 2d Moon, 
©f the Yesx 1663. 




To Nathan Ben Saddi, a Jew, at Vienna. 

TH E term of our long mutual filence, injoined 
us by our Superiors, is now happily expired ; 
and we have with good fuccefs managed our feparate 
parts, without holding any correfpondence together. 
This was only a trial of our fidelity, conduci, and 
obedience : Or, perhaps, it was no more than a ca- 
price of policy, or a vain whim of ftate. For it is 
ufual with great men thus to praciife experiments 
on thofe whom they defign to employ in the molt 
important affairs. Whatever it be, we have acquit- 
ted ourfelves like trufty flaves, and that is enough 
for us. 

This comes to thy hand by an Armenian mer- 
chant ; one in whom I confide. There are abun- 
dance of that nation in Paris, and other parts of 
France. They travel up and down from one city 
or country to another, under the pretext of trading ; 
but are really fpies, fent from the Princes of the 
E alt, to obferve the Councils of thefe Weftern 
Courts, the defigns of Nazarene Monarch s, and to 
take an exact eftimate of the ftrength and riches of 
. thefe Infidels. For, though they outwardly profefs 
themfelves to be followers of Jefus, yet in their 
hearts they believe the Alcoran, and honour Ma- 
homet our holy Lawgiver. 

There is a kind of magick in truth, which forci- 
bly carries the mind along with it. Men readily 
embrace the dictates of fincere reafon ; yet thofe of 
thy nation are obftinate, and fhut their eyes wilfully 
againft the very light of nature. You over-value 
yourfelves and your lineage, becaufe you are the 
poiterity of Ifaac, the fon of Sarah, the free-wo- 
man, and wife of Ibrahim ; reproaching us, that 
we are the offspring of Ifmael, the fon of Hagar, a 
concubine and flave. You confider not that Ifmael 
was the eldeft fon of that glorious patriarch ; and 

• that, 


that, by the law of Mofes, it is enacted, that the 
fìrit-born fon fhall inherit his father's patrimony, tho* 
he were the fon of a bafe, abject flave, or hated 
concubine. Did Mofes make a law contrary to that 
of his fathers? Or could Ibrahim, the beloved of 
God, do any thing contrary to the divine will ? How 
then could he be guilty of difmheriting Ifmael, his 
eldefr. fon, the flower of his ftrength, and firit-fruit 
of his vigour ? Doubtlefs, the majefty and light of 
God, which palled from Adam to Seth, Enoch, 
Noah, and Ibrahim, refled alfoon Ifmael, heir ap- 
parent of the divine promifes, father of many Princes 
and noble nation?. 

Let thofe therefore of thy nation ceafe to boaft. of 
their pedigree, and exalt themfelves above the vic- 
torious and triumphant Ifmaelites, children of a 
high flock, a race wherein fhine forth the luftre of 
ancient renown and the right of primogeniture : A 
lineage of illuitrious honour, multiplied as the leaves 
of the trees, numerous as the ftars of heaven, prof- 
perous in all things by the fpecial benediction of 
God. Whereas, thou knoweft, the Ifraelites never 
made any great figure ©n earth, and are now reputed 
no better than vagabonds throughout the world. 

Your Rabbies reply to this Dy owning that our 
father Ifmael was, indeed, a great Prince, but that 
he was v/ithal a wild and favage man, who ftipport- 
ed his nobility and grandeur by rapine and blood, 
dwelling altogether in defarts and unfrequented 
places ; robbing the caravans of merchants and tra- 
vellers, oppreiling the poor, and murdering the in- 
nocent. In fine, they give this character of him, 
' That bis hand was againft every man, and every 
4 man's hand againft him.' 

To this accufation they affo add another, that 
the Princes of the Eaft, who defcend from If- 
mael, have all along, even to this day, eftablifhed 
their thrones in cruelty, mafTacres, and parricides ; 
fathers bereaving their children of the lives they 
gave them, and children putting their parents to 
death 5 brothers murdering brothers, and facrificirrg 



their neareft relations to the maxims of a barbarous 
policy, the reftlefs fufpicions of ftate. And that all 
this is more efpecially naanifeft in the fublimeHoufe 
of the invincible Ottomans. 

Thefe are the charges of Hebrew fpite, the flan- 
ders which your doctors caft on the progeny of Ibra- 
him, even on Ifmael and his children, to this day. 
But I would have thee, Nathan, reflecl: impartially 
on things, and not fuffer thy judgment to be impofed 
on by the fophiftry of your fcribes. Look back to 
the primitive times of Ifrael, examine the written 
law, the records of Mofes and the Seniors. There 
thou wilt meet with frequent examples of thofe very 
crimes which you lay to our charge ; true parallels 
of the fuppofed tyranny and inhuman actions, with 
which you tax the unblemifhed Ifmaelites. 

Did not your father Jacob fupplant his own eldefr. 
brother Efau ? Did he not cheat his uncle Laban of 
his fheep ? What was wanting to him of IfmaePs 
valour and fiercenefs he fupplied with a fox-like 
craft and fubtlety. Yet, how often did he plunder 
the children of Hamor ? And boafted afterwards of 
the preys he had taken from them with the bow and 

When your fathers came out of Egypt, what a 
carnage did Mofes their leader commit, when he 
commanded the fons of Levi to arile with their 
fwords in their hands, and every man to kill his bro- 
ther, his friend, and his neighbour; fo that there 
fell that day, at the foot of Mount Sinai, three and 
twenty thoufand men ; yet, for the fake of this de- 
teftable tragedy, he blefied them, faying, ' You 
6 have confecrated your hands this day in blood, eve- 
* ry man in the blood of his neighbour.' Behold 
the original of your priefthood, which is the high- 
eft rank of nobility among the Jews ! 

Remember how your fathers almoftcut off the 
whole race of Benjamin, fo that there were not 
above fix hundred men of that tribe left alive. For- 
get not alio, how A-bimelech, of the tribe of Ma- 
iiafieh, got the fovereignty, by mailacring fe^enty 



of his own brothers on one flone. Your own re- 
cords fay, that God gave you Kings in his wrath, 
among whom there was not one who was not a man 
of blood. And, in the whole catalogue, you can 
fcarce find four who are not tainted with facrilege, 
idolatry, and other enormous vices. 

In a word, Nathan, both the fons of Ifmael and 
Ifaac were but men ; and, if thou haft nothing elfe 
to object againft the former but what thou muft con- 
fefs the latter was equally guilty of, I advife thee 
henceforth to lay thy hand upon thy mouth, and 
ceafe to fpeak evil of thofe againft whom no man 
can fharpen his tongue or pen, and profper. 

Paris, 1 2d of the id Moon, 
of the Year 1663* 

To the fame. 

I Concluded my other letter fomewhat imperfect- 
ly, and fhórt of my defign ; being interrupted 
by a fudden deluge of humours overflowing my eyes, 
accompanied with a temperi: in my head, which at 
firft took from me the power of thinking regu- 
larly, and of feeing how to write. I am often fub- 
jecf. to thefe weaknefTes of late, and to many ether 
maladies. My body fenfibly decays ; age and care, 
watching and ficknefs, with a thoufand cafualties 
belides, have almoft diilblved this congealed medley 
of the elements. Methinks, I am now no more than 
a poor fkeleton, to which nature and fortune have 
left a dry and withered fkin, for modefty's fake, to 
cover its nakednefs ; with a few evacuated veins and 
arteries, fhrunk finews, tendons, mufcles, and car- 
tilages, to tack this machine of bones together, and 
keep it in motion. In a word, I feem to myfelf to 
be only a hobgoblin, or ghoft in difguife 3 I cannot 



fay incarnate (for I have loft all my flefh) but only 
bagged or clouted up in the moll: contemptible 
fhreds, rags, and antiquated relicks of mortality, 
like a maudlin and fcarecrow, I hang together by 

Yet, fuch as I am at thefe years, I ftill poflefs, at 
certain feafons, more ferene and vigorous thoughts, 
than in the days of my youth, when I was full of 
marrow and good blood. I can feel my foul fome- 
times fluttering her wings, and brifkly making off 
the heavy, flimy clogs of earth, of fleep, and of in- 
chanted life, or living death. She ftruts and plumes 
herfelf, fhe mounts aloft, and glides in happy, 
though but momentary, foretaftes of eternal blifs. 
And then, lured down again by charms of her accuf- 
tomed eafe and pleafure in the flefh, fhe comes to 
. hand at call, and, being hoodwinked from the ra- 
diant light of heaven, ihe tamely perches on the 
meaneft fenfual appetite, which eafily conveys her 
to her wonted darknefs. This is the changeable 
itate of mortals, and we mult not expect a fixed 
condition on this fide the fepulchre : The noble and 
the vulgar are equally liable to thefe inconftancies 
of fpirit; neither can the more exalted fiate of fo- 
vereign Monarchs privilege them from the com- 
mon frailties of mankind. They are no otherwife 
diflinguifhed from the meanefl of their flaves, than 
only by the vaflnefs of their pofTeffions, their nume- 
• rous retinue, their unlimited power, and the pa- 
geantry of external honour. 

If we examine the origin of nobility and royal 
grandeur, if we trace the genealogies of Princes 
and Potentates up to their fountain, we fhall find 
the firft fathers of thofe noify pedigrees to be cruel 
butchers of men, oppreflbrs, tyrants, perfidious, 
truce-breakers, robbers, and parricides. In a word, 
the molt primitive Nobility was no other than po- 
tent wickcdnefs, or dignified impiety. And all the 
fucceiììve continuations of it by inheritance, elec- 
tion, or otherwife, even to thefe modern times, are 
but (o many traditions of exorbitant power and ho- 
3 nour, 


nour, acquired and propagated by the mofr. enor- 
mous vices, by practices unworthy of men, and of 
which the authors themfelves are always afhamed. 
Therefore they cover their unjuft incroachments 
and invafions with the fpecious pretexts of juifice 
and virtue, calling that conquer! which is no other 
than downright robbery, and profeiling themfelves 
patrons of men's liberties and rights, religion and 
law, whilft in effect, they are the greateit oppref- 
fors, hypocrites, atheifts, and out-Jaws in the world. 

This is not only true in the race of Ifmael and 
Ifaac, of whom I made mention in my other letter ; 
but in all the families which have ever made any- 
eminent figure and noife in the world. 

What were the four renowned monarchies, but fo 
many empires of banditti, governments of free-boot- 
ers, pirates,' and licenfed thieves ? As Diomedes 
told Alexander the Great : 8 I,' fays he, ' becaufe 

* I play the private corfair, and cruife up and down 

* the feas with one fingle fhip, am accufed as a pi- 

* rate : Thou, that doff, the fame thingwith a mighty 

* fleet, art called an Emperor* If thou wert alone 

* and captive, as I am, they would efteem thee no 

* better than a thief: And, were I at the head of a 

* numerous army, as thou art, I mould be reve- 

* renced as an Emperor. For, as to the juftice of our 

* cauie, there is no other difference but this, that 

* thou doff more mifchief than I. Misfortune has 

* compelled me to be a thief; whereas nothing but 

* an intolerable pride, and infatiable avarice, put 

* thee upon the famecourfc of life. If fortune would 

* prove more favourable to me, perhaps, I might 

* become better : Whereas thy continual fuccenes 
4 make thee but the worfe/ Alexander, admiring 
the boldnefs of the man, and the refolutenéfs of his 
fpirit, gave him a command in his army, that fo he 
might rob and plunder from thenceforth by au- 

But I mould have begun higher in antiquity with 
the empire of the AfTyrians, founded by Ninus, in 
the blood and flaughter, ruin and deftruclion, of all 



his neighbours, and increafed after the fame methods 
by his wife Semiramis, who begging of her hufband 
that me might reign for five days, and he granting 
her requeft, me put on the royal ornaments, and, 
fitting on the throne of uncontroulable majefly, 
commanded the guards to kill her hufband. Which 
being done, me fucceeded in the empire, adding 
./Ethiopia to her other dominions, carrying a war 
into India, and ineompafhng Babylon with a mag- 
nificent wall ; at Jaft €ne was killed by her fon Ni- 
nyas. Thus was the Afiyrian monarchy eftablifhed 
in regicides, mafiacres, and carnage. And by the 
fame methods it was translated by Arbactus to the 
Medes, he having caufed Sardanapalus, the lafl and 
molt effeminate of the Aflyrian Kings, to die in the 
midft of his concubines. Thus was treachery and 
murder handed down with thefovereign power, till 
at length Cyrus the Perfian transferred them to his 
country ; whofe fon, Cambyfes, railed the fecond 
universal monarchy, on the additional ruins of ma- 
ny other kingdoms, cementing it with the blood of 
his brother and his fon. Yet, after all, it was tran- 
Hated to the Macedonians by Alexander the Great, 
not without an equal guilt§of parricide and other 
exorbitant vices. From whom at laft it devolved 
to the Romans. 

What need I mention the fcandalous birth of Ro- 
mulus and Remus, the twin fons of an inceftuous 
veftal ? Or their debauched education under a com- 
mon proftitute, fabuloufly veiled by the Roman hi- 
ftorians under the title of a y/olf, to render the ori- 
gin of their empire miraculous ? Why fhou'd I re- 
count the hcrrrid fratricide committed by Romulus 
on Remus, his brother ; or the celebrated rape of 
the Sabine wives, virgins, and widows? It will feem. 
invidious to call to mind the deteftable murder of 
Titus Tatius, the good old Captain of the Sabines, 
with many other barbarous mailacres. Yet thefe 
enormous crimes were the foundations of the Ro- 
man grandeur and nobility, fo formidable after- 
wards to the whole earth. And the fuperftruchire 

Vol, VI. G wsa 


was anfwerable, through all the various changes 
and revolutions of government, even to the reign 
of Auguftus Caefar, under whom Rome gained the 
title of the fourth univerfal monarchy. 

This Emperor, though he was efteemed the moft 
merciful and juft Prince on earth, yet he eftabiifhed 
his throne in the blood of his kindred, facrificing 
the children of his uncle to the ends of irate : And, 
that he might not deviate from the royal ingratitude 
of other Princes, he barbaroufly extinguifhed theofF- 
fpring of his father's brother, who had adopted him 
to the inheritance of the imperial dignity; fcorning 
by an unkingly tendernefs to fpare the glorious 
names of Antony and Cleopatra, to whom he was 
fo nearly related, and who had inverted him with 
the power of being fo inhuman. 

I will not make thee lick by rehearfing the abomi- 
nable lives and wicked atìions of the Nero's, Do- 
mitian's, Caligula's, Heliogabalus's, Galienus's, 
and the reft of thofe royal monfters. Hiftory itfelf 
blufhes to recite fuch prodigies of impiety, and their 
very names are odious to all generations. 

If we pafs from thefe mighty empires to king- 
doms of lefs note, we mail Itili trace the footfteps 
of .the fame vices. Both ancient and modern re- 
cords are full of thefe tragedies. The original king- 
dom of theGreeks took its rife from the parricide of 
Dardanus ; and the female empire of the Amazons 
began in the barbarous mafiacre of their hufbands. 
All ages and nations afford us examples of this na- 
ture; and the higheft honours, dignities, and com- 
mands were ever acquired and maintained by the 
higheft injuftice. 

Therefore, honed Nathan, let thou and I never 
envy the Nobles and Grandees of the earth ; but, 
contented in our humble pofts, fitting under the 
umbrella's of a happy obfcurity, let us ferve the 
Grand Signior with integrity, and zeal void of in- 

P iris, nd of the id Moon, 
of the Year 1663. 




To Codarafrad Cheik, a Man of the Law, 

THOU wilt approve the fentenee that was yef- 
terday executed on a Frenchman in this city, 
who faid he was the fon of God, and had perfuaded 
a great many poor ignorant people to believe him* 
He was burnt alive for his blafphemy, and his afhes 
kicked into a ditch. Had he been convicted of this 
horrid impiety in any of the Grand Signior's domi- 
nions, he had undergone the like, or a more ter- 
rible punifhment : For the Alcoran exprcfly fays, 
* That God has neither wife, fon, daughter, or 
c companion : And that thofe fhall fufrer eternal 
4 pains who teach any fuch doctrine.' Doubtlefs, 
there is but one God, and the eternal unity cannot 
be divided, or multiplied, to make more Gods in 
fraction, or procreate an offspring of diminutive 
deities. He, the father of all things, dwells in eter- 
nal folitude, and, from an infinite retirement, be- 
holds the various generations of the univerfe ; they 
are all equally his offspring, and it is blafphemy to 
affirm he has a fon or a daughter, or a companion 
like unto himfelf. For he is uncreated, unbcgot- 
ten, and intire : Sole pofTefibr of his own glory, 
without rival or competitor. There was none be- 
fore him, neither fhall there be any after him. He 
is without beginning or end. 

But thefe Infidels harbour flrange opinions about 
a trinity of Gods, and follow the doctrines of Her- 
mes Trifmegiftus, Plato, Plotinus, and other Pa- 
gan philofophers> who afìerted a triad in the deity ; 
and on that bafis founded all the polytheifm of the 
Gentiles. Hence Pythagoras drew his tetragram- 
maton, by playing thechymical arithmetician, and 
extracting a quaternity out of three. But the poets, 
not puzzling their heads with the myfteries of thefe 
divine and unintelligible numbers, delivered their 
theology in plain, grofs fictions, fuitable to the ca- 
G 2 pacifies 


pacifies of the vulgar : One midwifing a goddefs out 
of Jupiter's brains : Another ftarting a god from his 
thigh. But this filly fellow could not derive his pe- 
digree fo near as from a little toe of the divinity— 
Therefore he was defervedly reduced to his firft 
atoms, and fpurned out of the world. 

The French have various kinds of punifhment 
for malefactors, but none more terrible than break- 
ing on the wheel. This is inflicted only on noto- 
rious criminals, and the manner is thus : The par- 
ty condemned is fattened to the wheel, with his arms 
and legs extended to their full length and widenefs : 
Then comes the executioner, and, with an iron 
bar, breaks one bone after another till the miferable 
wretch is in the agonies of death, and fo he is left 
to expire in unutterable torments : For fome men 
of ftrong conftitutions will retain life in this con- 
dition for twelve or more hours together. 

Honourable Codarafrad, though the executions 
of the Eaft are more fwift and furprifing than thofe 
of the Weft, yet they are not comparable to them 
for cruelty : The worft death being but a minute's 

Sage Cheik, I reverence thy accomplifhed know- 
ledge in the laws of equity and juftice. 

Paris, 15th of the 3d Moon, 
of the Year r C 6 3,. 

The End of the Second Book 







To Solyman, his Coufin, at Chalcedon. 

I Commend thee for removing thus from place to 
place, and could wifh that thou wouldeft not- 
only exchange thy rendence through all the cities 
feated on the Bofphorus, Propontis, Euxine fea, 
and the Heilefpont, but vilit by turns ail the famous 
marts in the world. 

Praife be to God, we are not born in Mufcovy^ 
Ruflia, China, or under the narrow- fouled govern - 
mentsof Lycurgus, Plato, and fuch kind of jealous 
Lawgivers; where it would be no lefs punimmcnt, 
than the lofs of one's eyes, ears, and feet, if not of 
life itfelf, to travel out of his native country, or for 
a ftranger to come in, excepting foreign Ambaifa- 
dors and Agents, who in China are forced to travel 
with their faces veiled or muffled, from the confines 
G 3 t* 


to the Court, left they fhould efpy the di fad vantages 
of the country. 

Doubtlefs, this is repugnant to the law of nature 
and nations, an oppreffion of humanity, and direct- 
ly opposite to the purpofe of God when he defigned 
end made us fociable creatures : For the whole earth 
i 5 but as cne country or province, common to men 
and beaits. It is our element, and therefore we 
ought to be free in it, to range where we pleafe, as 
the fowls do in the air, and the hfh in the fea, with- 
out any law, reftraint, or injury. Such a thought 
as this made Socrates, when he was afked, Wnat 
countryman he was ? anf.ver, ' I am a native of 
* the univerfe, and therefore free to live where I 

4 WliJ 

Thou knoweft our coufm Ifouf has travelled over 
all Aaa and Africa, with fome parts of Europe. 
My brother Perteii Hali has alfo vifited many re- 
gions in the Eait. Both of them have improved their 
eftates and fortunes in the world, the one at Aftra- 
paft, thè oth :r at Conib.ntinople. Follow their fteps, 
and thou mayeft have thy heart's content. Go and 
obferye the different manners of men, their various 
cuiloms, laws, and religions. Survey the moun- 
tains, vallies, defarts, rivers, lakes,^ feas, cities, 
caftles, palaces, and all the other deiirable objects 
which embellifh this globe. 

But beware of the infirmity of moft travellers, 
who, cameleon-like, change their humour and man- 
ners, as the regions vary through which they pafs : 
Mere mimicks, buffoons, and apes, who place their 
excellency in imitating every thing they fee or meet 
with : Thus degenerating from themfelves, inftead 
of improving their minds in true fcience and wif- 
dom, and hardening their bodies to endure patient- 
ly the injuries of the elements, with all the fatigues 
and contingencies of human life, which are the 
chief ends of travelling, next to that of learning 
how to ferve our Sovereign and our couptry in a 
more refined manner. 



Solyman, never think that thou wilt deferve the 
character of a prudent traveller, if, at thy return, 
thou canft only boaftof frrangeand incredible things 
thou halt feen, tell monftrous romances, and fictions 
more fabulous than thole of the Gentile poets. Aim 
at folid knowledge and the improvements of a ra- 
tional creature. As thou goeft out a Muiìiilman, fo 
return ; but with all the advantages that may re- 
commend thee for a perfori accompli/hed in hiitory, 
morals, politicks, and divine philofophy. 

If thou dareft not undertake a ramble at large, go 
to thy couiin Ifouf at Aitracan, where he is fettled 
in a way of traffick and merchandife. Take thy 
voyage by the Black Sea and the Palus IVfaeotis. 
Cait thy eyes on the ancient kingdom of Colchis, 
as thou fai left by her mores ; confider the temper of 
the Mingrelians, CircafEans, and Tartars, with 
the reft: of the people through whofe territories thou 
wilt pafs. And, when thou arriveft at Aftracan, 
tell my coufin Ifouf. that I wifhed thee to take this 
courfe : He will refpecl thee for thy uncle's recom- 
mendation. Shew him this letter, and let his own 
eyes fee the hand-writing of Mahmut, the aged, 
weather-beaten Have of the earth's great Sovereign ; 
the old, grey, grilled watchman of the fublime Porte, 
which is the refuge of mortals. He will find many 
opportunities of advancing thee. But I advife thee 
to wean thyfelf from all fondnefs, inconftancy, and 
difcontent. Be true to thy truft, fedulous and ac- 
tive, patient and reiigned. Take all things as they 
come from Deftiny, without being peevifh or fretful. 

So may God blefs thee, and give thee the riches 
of the earth, and the fweet influences of heaven ; 
make thee happy here and hereafter. Finally, may 
thy reft be on high in Paradife. 

Paris, ift of the 5th Moon, 
«f the Year 1663.. 

G_ 4 LE T- 



To Pefteli Hali, his Brother, Matter of the 
Cuftoms at Conftantinople. 

•'~|~^i-IERE is no doubt but, when thou waft in 

JL the Indies, the names of Sultan Darà, Su- 
jah, Aurengzebe, and Mgrad Batche were not lefs 
known to thee than that of their father Cha Jehan, 
the Grand Mogul. Thy bufmefs, as well as curio- 
iity, called thee often to the Court, where thou haft 
heard the characters of thefe young Princes, whofe 
early years i'uvniihed the world with matter of noife 
and great expectations, and gave the old Monarch 
that begot them trouble and care enough to keep 
them in order, and prevent their machinations 
againiè-one another, as v/ell as againft himfelf. For 
in tbofe days he faw his family divided into factions, 
and a royal envy, mixed with ambition, whetting 
brothers and lifters againft each other, who by na- 
ture were made for the oinces of reciprocal love. 

Surely, it is but a glorious infelicity for children 
to be thus bom candidates for a crown, when each 
is obliged, by a principle of felf-prefervation, to 
puriue his claim, in a method wholly repugnant to 
humanity, and the affection that is due to thole of 
the fame blood : When, making off all tendernefs 
and companion, the fons of one mother rnuft fheathe 
their fvvords in each others bowels, to prevent their 
own fate ; and ravifli a crown by force, to fave 
their lives. 

Yet this is the misfortune of all the Eaftern 
Courts, that they cannot fee a Prince afcend the 
throne, v/ithout the daughter of his brethren, and 
all that can be fufpected to pretend, or ftand in 
competition with him for fovereignty. 

However, it muft be confeffed, that the Indian 
policy in this point is far more generous than that 
of the Ottomans or Perfians ; who, either immedi- 


ately after their pofTeffion of the throne, -murder in 
cold blood all the reft of their lineage; or, at leali;,. 
imprifon them in fome dark dungeon, during their 
lives, and, not feldom, put out thsir eyes. And 
this is owing to the difad vantage the unhappy chil- 
dren of our Monarchs lie under, in that from their 
infancy they are confined to the Seraglio, and edu- 
cated under the tutelage of women and eunuchs^ 
even during the whole life of their father ; fo that 
he who is advanced to the throne has all the reft in 
his cuftody the firft hour of his reign. 

Whereas, in Indoitan, the Princes of the blood 
are committed to able and learned tutors, and, as 
they grow in years, increafing alfo in knowledge, 
wifdom, and courage, they are difpofed of, every 
one fuitable to his capacity, fome being made Mi- 
ll ifters of State, others Generals of armies, orGo- 
vernors of provinces : Whereby each is put in a con- 
dition to make parties for himfelf among the Gran- 
dees, and thofe of inferior degree, and to fortify 
his intereft in court and city, country and campv 
Thus an open field is left for all ta try their wit and 
courage in, for the fake of inheritance ; and it is 
more equal to let them nobly (kirmim for a crown, 
and make a warlike lottery for life or death, than to 
fet up one with the advantage and character of a 
butcher, and turn the Seraglio into a fhambles, al- 
ways polluted with royal innocent blood. 

But every Urate purfues its own maxims ; and there 
are not wanting men of the law who juftify this in- 
human conduct of our Sultans, as the only means to> 
prevent publick diffractions and civil wars ; which 
always happen where there are many pretenders to 
the imperial dignity, as it lately fell out in the Indies. 

I need not acquaint thee with what particular dig* 
nities and commands the Great Mogul inverted his 
four fons. Thou couldeft fufficiently inform thy- 
lelf of thefe things, when thou waft at Deh li, the 
capital city of Iildoftan. Neither need I fay any 
thing of Rauchenara Begum, or her fifter Sahebs 
the two daughters of Cha Jehan. Thou, that haft 
G 5 been. 


been thtre in perfon, knoweft more of thefe things 
than I, who am obliged to the merchants and tra- 
vellers for all my intelligence of the Indian affairs. 
. Eat I can certify thee of fornething which has 
been tranfa&ed there (i nee thy return to Conftanti- 
nople ; the fame whereof, perhaps, is not yet ar- 
rived at the imperial city. 

Know then, that in the year 1655, a rumour be- 
ing fpread abroad through the provinces of India, 
that Cha Jehan was dead, each of his four fons be- 
gan to lay about him for the crown. They did all 
that is ufual in fuch cafes for ambitious perfons to 
do, by courting the Omrahs and Rajahs with larga 
prefents and large promifes, by obliging the foldiery 
with immenfe la'rgefles : In a word, by roufing up 
the friendihip and integrity of their adherents, and, 
by winning over ftrangers to their different parties, 
with whatfoever elfe was thought neceflary to carry- 
on a profperous war againft one another : For the 
innate delire of reigning had equally poiTeiTed them 
all. But Deftiny, which appoints and confummates 
human events, had referved the crown for Aureng- 
zebe, who iurpaiTed all the reft in policy and ditfi- 

With profound craft this Prince over-reached his 
younger brother, Morad Batche ; and put him in 
chains in the midft of Morad's own army ; pacify- 
ing the Officers with bribes, and the common fol- 
diers with increafe of their pay, whilft he fent their 
General away pr'foner to one of his ftrongeft caftles. 
This was the rirft coniiderable ftroke he gave to- 
wards gaining a crown. For now he was not only 
rid of one competitor, and the moft dangerous of all 
the reft; but alio became Mafter of his army, and 
all his treafure; which, being joined to his own, 
put him in a condition to purfue his good fortune 
with fuccefs. Yet the war lafted almoft fix years ; 
his brother, Sultan Sujah, keeping him in play on 
the fide of Bengal, and Sultan Darà near the capital 
cities of Agra and Dehli. 



But, at laft, they were both forced to yield to the 
fortune of Aurengzebe. In fine, he was eftabliihed, 
and now fits on the throne of his fathers; whiiir. 
they fell facrifices to the jealoufy and revenge of 
their victorious brother ; being, as I am informed, 
taken prifoners, and afterwards poifoned, or hurried 
out of the world fome other way. 

Thus paffes away human glory, like a cloud driven 
before the wind ; or like the fmoke of a fire, which 
looks bright and gay fora while, crackles, and gives 
heat to all that are near it, but is either fuddenly 
quenched with water or evaporates into air, and is 
no more remembered. 

Dear Pefteli, conlider that this earth is not our 
native country . We are foreigners here below ; let 
us improve ourfelves, by every thing we incounter, 
in knowledge and virtue, without learning the va- 
nity and vices of mortals. 

Paris, 4th of the 6th Moon, 
of the Year 1663. 


ToUfeph, BafTa. 

HERE is great rejoicing for the converiion 
of a certain Proteftant Prince to the faith of 
the Roman church. They call him the Duke of 
Mecklenburgh. He is faid to fpring from an an- 
cient race of Kings among the Vandals. This 
Court carefTes him in an extraordinary manner, as 
they ufually do all profelytes of his high quality ; as 
for poor and vulgar converts, they ferve only to be- 
come the priefrs Haves and aftes. 

The Kin^, who is ftyled the eldefl: fon of the 

•hurch, and therefore ought to appear a living d?- 

G 6 moiv- 


monitration ot" her bóafted virtues, has been very li- 
beral of his favours to the new devotee, creating 
him Knight of the Holy Spirit, which is the moli: 
iublime degree of honour in this kingdom, next to 
that of being made a Peer of the realm. 

Couriers arrive one at the heels of another from 
the Duke of Beaufort, who is cruifing about on the 
Mediterranean. But I cannot get a fight of any of 
them, nor learn what their exprefTes contain. The 
Courtiers and Statefmen here are the very whirlpools 
of intelligence. Whatever news is communicated to 
them is fwallowed up and loft for ever in profound 
iilence. They receive all, but return none again. 
However, people take the liberty to guefs, every 
man according to his reafon or fancy. Some fay 
the Duke of Beaufort has engaged with a fleet of 
Algerines, and driven them into their harbour with 
great lofs on their fide, and triumph on his. Others 
laugh at this as only a Court-romance, who ftrive 
to prepoflefs the nation w T ith profperous ftories of the 
King's arms both by lea and land. Whilft a third 
ibrt affirm, that thofe difpatches come not from the 
Duke of Beaufort, who, they fay, is dead, being 
killed by a cannon-bullet, in an incounter with the 
Corfairs of Barbary : But that they are fent from 
the next chief Officers in the Toulon fleet, to give 
the King an account of his death, and receive new 

In the mean while, we are wholly taken up here 
at prefent w T ith the reception of the Swifs Ambaf- 
fadors. They made their publick Entry into Paris 
yefterday, after they had been magnificently enter- 
tained at the Caftle of the wood. A thoufand cha- 
riots accompanied them through the ftreets of Paris» 
They are brave jolly perfons, fons of Bacchus, and 
hirelings to Mars, (tout in a wine-cellar, and no 
cowards in the field. 

Courteous BafTa, thou feeft I do not forget my 
friends, but fend to all, by turns, the aJvices that 
come to my hands. I wilh thou wouldeil favour 



me with a fhoFt fketch of thy pleafure with the 
Grand Signior, in the neighbouring plains of A» 

Paris, 1 oth of the nth Mooa, 
of the Year 1663. 


To Hamet, Reis Effendi, Principal Secretary 
of the Ottoman Empire. 

IT is hard to determine whether the French King 
excels moft in martial affairs, or thofe of fiate. 
He is good at both. His counfels are wife, and his 
actions great. A man both in body and mind form- 
ed for empire -, and outftripping his years in all 
things, fave the affairs of love. Thefe, indeed, he 
purfues with youthful vigour and pafììon, being by 
nature very amorous, and efteemed the handfomefr. 
Prince of this age by thofe who confider a regular 
fhape, graceful features, and a majeltick awefuinefs 
in his face, as the principal ingredients in a mafcu- 
line beauty. 

It is certain he is very acceptable to the Ladies, 
who are the moft competent Judges in this cafe. 
And they value him fo much the more, becaufe his 
love never abates the due fentiments a Monarch 
ought to have of his glory. For he gratifies both 
paffions, without fuftering them to interfere, ma- 
naging his foftefc intrigues with fuch exquifite pru- 
dence, that he ftill comes ofF a hero. 

He has had many miftrefTes, and it is a manifeft 
difcovery of his wit, that he never faftened his af- 
fections on any that deferved not the fame character. 
She that has the greateft fhare in his heart, at pre- 
fent, is called the Duchefs of Vaujour; a woman 
raifed to that title by the King's bounty, for the 
fake of his love. She has a refined wit, and that 



is all that can be faid in her praife. For, as to her 
body, it would hardly tempt an indifferent painter 
to employ his (kill, unlefs rt were in defcribingwhat 
the taylor endeavours to hide, and that is a defor- 
mity much like mine, a remarkable bunch in the 
back ; yet this great Monarch loves her paffionately, 
and will not be eafily croffed in his amours. 

The Queen, and his mother, have endeavoured, 
by divers methods, to reclaim him '; but all prove 
ineffectual. A while ago they fet his Conreffor to 
work, who, with abundance of unfeafonable gra- 
vity, reprefented to the young invincible Monarch 
the ill confequences of unlawful love (for thefe In- 
fidels efteem none lawful, but what is beftowed only 
on one wife.) He faid all that was proper for a Jefuit 
to urge onfuch an occafion, and a great deal more; 
threatening the royal lover with fevere penance, and 
I know not what. Impatient of this difcourfe from 
a fubject, yet refpecling the character he bore as a 
prieft, the King, with a referved countenance, 
thanked him for his pious counfel, telling him with- 
al, that, for the future, he difcharged him from his 
fervice, being refolved to obey the old canons of the 
church, and confefs to none but the prieft of the 
parifh. Thus the poor Jefuit was difcarded, and, 
beiides the King's difpleafure, he has drawn upon 
himfelf the cenlures and curfes of his whole order, 
for difobliging fo potent a Monarch, only to pleafe 
two peevifh women. 

Illuftrious Minifter, Kings are as Gods on earth, 
and they efteem it a profanation of their divinity, 
when their actions are too narrowly fcanned by their 
fu bj eels. 

Paris, 7th of the ift Mcon, 
♦f the Year 1664. 




To Pefteli Hali, his Brother, Matter of the 
Grand Signior's Cufloms, at Conftanti- 

THE news which thy letter imparts would 
afreet me with incredible delight, were fuch 
a thing poffible to come to pafs. It is a long time 
fince 1 have been weary of dwelling in Paris, and 
of converfing only with Infidels. There is a per- 
fect antipathy between their humour and mine. 
And it is no fmall violence a man does to his nature, 
in fuch a cafe, when all his actions and words art 
counterfeited. This goes mightily againii the grain. 
But I have thought nothing too much t© do or fuf- 
fer for our great Matter's intereft ; and I am ftill of 
the fame refolution. Yet nature itfelf abhors force 
and reftraint. Therefore it would be a vaft comfort 
to be recalled from this difagreeable itation, and 
placed in fome other poft, where I might ferve God 
and the Grand Signior with more eafe. 

Befides, I have met with nothing but perfecutions 
and reproaches from fome of the Seraglio, ever fince 
I came to this city ; as I have often hinted in my 
difpatches to the Grandees, and, particularly, once 
to the noble Kerker HaiTan, Baita, our countryman 
and friend. Wherein I alfo implored his favour and 
intercefiion, that I might have leave to retire into 
Arabia, and fpend the reft of my days in the place 
where I nrft drew my breath ; or, at leaft, that I 
might be permitted to return to Conftantinople, 
and give an account of my agency in thefe parts, 
though it were to the lofs of my head, if I defer- 
ved it. 

I perceive that generous BafTa took companion on 
my fufferings, and has done his utmoit to relieve 
me. It is to him I owe the propofal that was made 
in the Divan, of fending me to the Court of the 



Grand Mogul, there to negociate fome private af- 
fairs of importance for the Sultan. 

There is nothing that I have had a greater paffion 
for, thele many years, than the happinefs of vifiting 
thofe remote parts of the earth, fo venerable for the 
antiquity of their inhabitants, and the excellency of 
their laws, cuftoms, religion, and government ? I 
mean the Gentoo Indians, and not the race of the 
Moguls, who came out of Tartary, and are but of 
yefterday, in comparifon with the aboriginal people, 
whofe genealogies and poflefììons of that country 
ftretch beyond all the records in the world befides. 

Ever fince I read the journal of thy travels in the 
Eaft, I was inflamed with an ardent defire to fee 
that renowned nation, to converfe with the Brach- 
mans, and pry into the myfteries of their unknown 
wifdom, which occalions fo much difcourfe in the 

I know not what ails me, but I promife myfelf 
more fatisfaction from their books, were I capable 
of understanding the language in which they are 
writ, or from the lips of thofe priefls, who have 
them in their cuftody, than from all the prophets 
and fages in the world. I fancy I mould find fome- 
thing prodigiouflyilrange and amazing in their hif- 
tory, yet fquaring with human reafon and proba- 
bility of truth. I mould meet with arguments which 
I cannot yet ftart, to prove the eternity of the world ;. 
arguments clear and demonllrative : Such as would 
eftablifh this doctrine, againfl all objections that 
have, or can be made to the contrary. 

The idea, which I already entertain of fo unmea- 
furable a duration, is only founded on my own na- 
tural thoughts, and fupported by the concurrent opi- 
nion of feveral ancient philofophers. But I iriould 
hope to fee it difcovered by thefe Indian records to 
be a truth as bright as the fun, and as fixed as the 
center of the earth. 

There is another thing for which I mightily ad- 
mire the Indians, and wherein I endeavour to imi- 
tate them, to the utmoft of my power : That is, the 



juftice and tendernefs they fhew towards the beads. 
It is a thing which needs a confiderable expiation, 
if by chance they kill any living creature : But, if 
they do it wilfully, out of cruel wantonnefs or ma- 
lice, and not in their own defence, it is puniihed 
with death, no lefs than if they had murdered a 
man. No care of health, nor fear of dilìblution by 
iickncfs, can tempt one of the Brachman race to 
tafte a bit of flefh : Much lefs could they be induced, 
by the mere pleafure of their appetites, to commit 
that which they efteem fo enormous a fin, and the 
very fountain of all other vices. They count it the 
greateft injuftice that can be to fuftain their own 
lives by the death of any of their fellow-animals ; 
and they efteem it a pufillanimity unbecoming a 
man, when he dares not venture his life on the fruits 
of the earth, and the milk of the cattle, which he 
may enjoy in innocence ; and nature affords him more 
than enough of all forts of lawful nourimment. 

This religious abftinence is the mother of heroick 
virtues j and thofe who praérife it inviolably are 
always in a ftate to contemn the world, death, and 
all momentary things. Hence it is that the Indians 
go to the invilible world as chearfully as they would 
take a journey to China and Perfia, Turky, or any 
other part of the earth. For they efteem death no 
other than a fetting-out, or voyage of the foul to 
a more agreeable region. 

But I need not mini fo much on thefe things to 
thee, who haft been r.mong them, and art familiar- 
ly acquainted with the ; r genius and inclination. I 
Aide into this difcourfe infeniibly, by the pleafure I 
take in thinking of thefe people, and their admi- 
rable virtues, as a man falls in love with a beautiful 
woman by attentively gazing on her, and many 
times forgets himfelf and the buiinefs he was about, 
commits errors and indecencies, and, through the 
confufion of his fp ; rits, is quite loft, like one in a 

To return therefore to my purpofe : A journey to 
the Indies would be very pleafant to me on feveral 




other accounts. The very ftars of my nativity in- 
clined me to travel, and, from my cradle in my Fa- 
ther's houfe, I was transported to ConPcantinopIe, 
many hundreds of leagues from the place of my 
birth. Thou knoweft what a roamer I have been, 
fince that time : And I can affine thee I retain 
the fame difpofition itili. But there is no country 
under the moon which I wifh to fee with greater 
earneftnefs than Indoftan, the very name whereof 
founds almoft as fweet as Paradife. Doubtlefsj it is 
the Eden of the earth in many refpects. And the 
inhabitants believe there was no better for the ori- 
ginal parent of mankind to dwell in, ranking the 
hiilory of Mofes, on that fubjeét, in the number 
of celebrated fables. I approve not this cenfure of 
the Indians, yet, I tell thee, as a MufTulman, I dare, 
fay the mylterious writings of Mofes are quite mif- 
underftood by thegreateft part of mankind ; neither 
can any two of his interpreters agree exactly which 
was the particular fituation of Paradife. Some place 
that garden in Mefopotamia ; others in Paleftine ; 
and a third fort affirm it was in Egypt : This man 
will have it in Afia, that in Africa. They are di- 
vided in their opinions : And I might as well fay it 
was under the Red Sea, between them both ; and 
bring as many cabaliltick proofs to defend it. But 
this fignifies nothing to us, let it be where it will. 
Every place is a Paradife which a man fancies to be 
fo ; and nothing can beat me off from the conceit I 
have of the Indies. 

Befides, I fhould take vaft delight in my journey 
thither j whether I went by the way of the Black 
Sea, and fo through the ancient kingdoms of Col- 
chis, Georgia, and Cathay, coafling along the foot 
of Mount Taurus : Or, by the more common road, 
through Syria, Arabia, and Perfia. Either way 
would afford matter of thought to a contemplative 
man, whilft, in fome places, he beholds the ruins 
of famous cities, and his eyes revel on the fpoils of 
time, of lire, of war, or of earthquakes. In others, 
ke beholds whole provinces laid wafre and difpeo- 



pled, only meeting here and there a few cots, hords, 
or tents of Arabs, Tartars, or Circaffian herdfmen j 
who flraggle up and down the pleafant fields of 
Afia, to pick and chufe convenient paftures for their 

How pleafant would it be to travel through my 
own country, and behold the tents of the fons of 
Ifmael fpread over the plains of the vaft and hor- 
rible defart ! To meet with Emirs and Sheghs of A- 
rabia, with their flocks and herds, fummering it up 
and down, and frolicking from mountain to valley, 
at their pleafure ! 

From this to pafs to another variety in Perfia 
would be equally diverting. What kind of thoughts 
fhouid I have whilft on my bed within the walls of 
Bagdat, the itage of fo many great and renowned 
actions mentioned in ancient hiftory ! I fhouid call 
to mind Semiramis, the foundrefs of that noble ci- 
ty, and all her wars with the Indians and other na- 
tions of the Eail. I fhouid refleéf. on her policy, and 
the weaknefs of her fon Ninyas. I fhouid confider 
the various tranfiations of the Eaftern empire ; the 
alternate fates of the Medes, Aflyrians, Babyloni- 
ans, and Perfians. And from thence I fhouid na- 
turally fall upon the conquefls of Alexander the 
Great ; the rife of the Macedonian empire ; ths 
death of that mighty hero in Babylon ; and the can- 
tonifing the empire among his chief Officers. Such 
memoirs as thele would waken my thoughts of the 
vanity of all human affairs, as it does at this time. 
And, particularly, I reflect, on my folly, in fetting 
my heart fo much on travelling to a country, which 
I am never like to fee. 

For, alas ! my dear brother, I am not able to en^ 
dure, at this age, the hardfhips of fo long a jour- 
ney, as I could in my youth. Much ficknefs has 
impaired the ftrength of my conftitution. I am 
grown as tender as an infant. The leali puff of 
wind is ready to blow out the flame of life. And 
whereas, formerly, neither heat, nor cold,* hunger 
nor thirft, labour nor watching, could hurt me ; 



now my health receives damage from every one of 
thefe. I could not poiHbly outlive the fatigue and 
pain of travelling two or three days together, with- 
out a drop of water to refrefh my panting foul. An 
habitual fever has made me the thirftiefl man in the 
world. Then I am not able to bear the fcorching 
heat of the fun, to which a traveller in thofe parts 
is neceflarily expofed. I mould daily diffolve like 
wax, or rather exhale in fmoke, in the midft of 
fo many fervors. In a word, my body is fo infirm, 
that I am very fure to die before I get half-way to 
Indoftan, let me take the neareft road I can. 

Yet, if theMiniitcrs of the Porte mail think fit 
to fend me, iamrefigned. For I take no farther 
care of my life, than as I may be ferviceable to the 
Grand Signior. 

I intend to write to our illuftrious friend about it. 
In the mean time, do thou for me what the pru- 
dence of a man and the affection of a brother mail 
fuggeft, as moft conducing to the interdi: of our 
Sovereign, and our own honour, which we ought 
to prefer to our lives. 

Our mother is in health, and falutes thee with a 
tender embrace. 

Paris, 9th of the 3d Moon, 
of the Year 1664.. 


To Harriet, Reis Effendi, Principal Secretary 
of the Ottoman Empire. 

THIS Court of late makes a double figure; 
the one of real forrow for the Du chefs of Sa- 
voy's death, who was of the blood-royal of France; 
the other of counterfeit mourning^ for the death of 
Carolus Jofephus, brother to the German Emperor. 
For they inwardly rejoice at this latter, and wifh 



the whole Houle of Auftria were laid in their graves : 
That family being the only obftacle to the grandeur 
at which the French monarchy afpires ; the only 
rub which Cardinal Richlieu,and his fucceftbr, Ma- 
zarine, found in their way, when they fought to 
exalt the Bourbons to the empire of the Weft. 

The rife and fall of kingdoms, the various 
changes of government, the alternate fate of na- 
tions, are themes worthy of aMufTulman's thoughts; 
confidering, that the victorious and happy Ofmans 
at this day pofTefs the territories of ancient renown, 
the provinces and dominions which formerly made 
the greater! figure and noife in the world. 

What is now become of the moft famous mo- 
narchies of Babylon, Perfia, Aflyria, Macedonia, 
Greece, and Rome ! Look for the myfterious and 
learned kingdom of Egypt ; the religious ftate of 
the Jews ; the moft ancient kingdom of Sicyonians 
and Argives; the commonwealths of Lacedasmon 
and Athens ; with many other countries mention- 
ed in the records of time ; and we fhall find them 
all fwallowed up in the univerfal empire of the Ot- 

The hiftories of Bel us, and how he got the fo- 
vereignty by hunting ; ofNinus, his fon, whofirft 
taught the world the methods of idolatry ; of Semi- 
ramis, Ninyas, Sardanapalus, Arbaces, Belochus, 
and the reft of thofe AfTyrian Monarchs ; found now 
like an antiquated tale or dream. Neither is there 
any more life at this time in the Babylonian and 
Perfian regifters. The mighty acts of the Nebu- 
chadnezzars, Cyrus's, and the reft of thofe renown- 
ed Conquerors, now ferve but as foils to fet off the 
more glorious enterprifesand fuccefTes of our immor- 
tal Sultans. 

It is true, the Perfians, at this day, retain fome 
fragments of that once vaft and formidable Eaftern 
empire. And the Germans have a (hadow of the 
ancient Imperial Majefty of the Romans. But 
both the one and the other are grown effeminate and 

weak ; 


weak; they have loft the virtue, and power, and 
fortune of their predecefTors. 

Thou haft travelled over all the dominions of the 
Sophi, and been an eye-witnefs of the Periian luxu- 
ry, libertinifm, and nakednefs. Thou haft feen the 
offspring of heroick fages transformed into fwine, 
dogs, ailes, and other contemptible brutes, as if 
they had drank of Circe's cup. So fatal is it to de- 
cline from the ways of virtue ; nay, fo impofllble 
even to ftand ftill in that facred path, without being 
violently pulled backward. In a word, thou art fo 
thoroughly acquainted with the prefent ftate of Per- 
fia, and ail its circumftances, that I mould appear 
too officious in pretending to defcribe either the 
country, or the people that inhabit there. 

But, as to Europe, thou profefTeft thyfelf a ftran- 
ger, and haft commanded me to characrerife this 
quarter of the world : Wherein Germany makes 
the moft majeftick figure by land, England and Hol- 
land by fea : Spain boafts of her gold ; whilft France 
treafures it up to pay her armies, to keep foreign 
Kings in penfion, to build mighty fleets and mag- 
nificent palaces ; to corrupt the German Princes, 
and make them pimps to her ambition, inftruments 
of her defigned grandeur, which is no lefs than the 
Weftern Empire. 

As for the Duke of Savoy, he is a mere tennis- 
ball, or a fhuttle-cock, bandied to and fro between 
the Kings of France and Spain. 

The Swiffes are poor and mercenary. They can- 
not ftay at home, unlefs they could banquet on the 
turfs and ftones : For all the flefh, fruit, and corn 
in the land, is not half enough to keep them alive, 
and they have little or no money but what they get 
abroad. This makes them all travellers, and moft 
of them take up the trade of war. They ferve the 
Pope, the French King, and many other Princes, 
for pay : And, where they once engage, they are 
very true to their truft. But I can tell thee they 
would be unwilling to fight for the Grand Signior, 
unlefs he would allow them plenty of wine, which, 


A SPY AT PARIS. j 4 $ 

thou knoweft, is contrary to the difcipline of th« 
Mufiulman armies ; and thefe SwilTes are the pro- 
fefièd adorers of Bacchus. 

The Hollanders are induftrious and rich ; they 
mind nothing but merchandising and mechanicks. 
They would fain ingrofs the trade of the Indies and 
the Levant to themielves. They trafHck that they 
may be in a condition to fight, and they fight to 
eitablim their commerce j having no fenfe of ho- 
nour, but only of profit. If they attempt any con- 
queft, or make any invafions, it mule be in Ameri- 
ca, or fome other remote country ; for they are only 
upon the defenfive among their neighbours, not 
daring to be the firft aggreiibrs in a war : In a word, 
they are like a neffc of pifmires that trudge up and 
down continually to get provifions, but fling and 
bite thofe under whofe protection they live, if they 
have an opportunity. 

It is thought the Prince of Orange, who defcends 
from an ill urinous ftock, will, ere long, reduce 
thofe republicans to another form of government. 
The French ftyle him ' The head and heart of the. 
' United States/ and thefe, thou knoweft, com- 
mand the hands and feet. 

Germany is counted the bulwark of Chriftendom 
againft the mighty power of the Ottomans and Tar- 
tars. But, in my opinion, one of our AmbafTadors 
at the Emperor's Court gave a truer description of 
it, when he compared Germany to a great monfter 
with many heads and tails, which, having a defirc 
to break through a quick- fet fence or hedge, and 
each particular head making way where it could 
beft, among the lefs intangled branches, were all 
caught in fo many different noofes by the interpo- 
sition of ftrong trees, and fo the monfter was forced 
to retire with fhame and lofs : Whereas, he faid, 
the Ofman empire was like an animal with one 
head and many tails, and that one head, not en- 
countering the lkke difficulties, eafily paffed through, 
being followed by the tails with one confent, as the 
untwifted ends of a tea-ftringed cord pafs through 
2 a rin£ r 


a ring or hole, when the united part had led them 
the way. 

I fhould have mentioned Italy, Poland, Denmark, 
Mufcovy, and other regions of Europe ; but it would 
be too tedious for one letter, which I mould neither 
have time to write, nor thou patience to read, at 

Therefore I defire thee to accept of this, only as 
a rough draught and imperfect fketch of fome parts 
of the "Weft. But, in my future difpatches, I will 
imitate the painters, and endeavour to draw each 
member and lineament of this great body to the life, 
as near as I can difcern them, by the lights I have 
in Paris. 

Paris, i oth of the 4th Moon, 
of the Year 1664. 


To Kerker Haffan, Baila. 

MAY God multiply his bleffings on thee, and 
caule thy heart to fparkle with frefh lights, 
and new joys, like the fky- rockets on a dunalma (or 
royal holiday.) Accept alfo a fmall prefent, not 
worth an inventory, confifting only of a few pic- 
tures, looking-glafTes, watches, and other manu- 
factures of France, from the hands of Mahmut, 
thy countryman, fon of thy father's neighbour, and 
a voluntary flave of thofe who ferve thee, if I had 
the honour of an opportunity. 

Neither the gift, nor he that offers it, is worthy 
of efteem. But thou haft condefcenfion enough to 
look on both with the eye of a noble Arabian, who 
knows how to value the fincerity of any man's de- 
voir and affection, which way foever he expreiTes it. 

I can never forget the former difcoveries of thy 
friendfhip to my brother Pefteli and me, and, in ge- 


neral, to all thofe of our houfe ; which Hill encou- 
rages me to expeét greater kindnelles ; nay, in a 
Hianner, ailures me or" them : B^caufe I know the 
nature of true generofity is fuch,'that, where it once 
begins to faften on an object, it never ceafes to com- 
municate its favours, till damned perfidy gives a 
check to the current. And may he be damned that 
then has the impudence to afk: for any more. 

But, praife be to God, my cafe is otherwife ; I 
am not of the number of the ungrateful and trea- 
cherous : And, therefore, with boldnefs, I prefume, 
once more, to addrefs to the duft of thy feet, illus- 
trious Balla, begging thy patronage and fheltcr from 
the perfecution of my enemies, whofe whole endea- 
vour is to ruin mc. 

Thou knowefr. I came to Paris in the year 1637 
cf the Chriftian Hegira. The fun had then revifit- 
ed the fign he was in at my nativity, juft theeight- 
and-twentieth time. I was a mere youngiler in the 
world. However, my Superiors thought me fit for 
this employment. How I have acquitted myfelf in 
it everfince, I leave themfelves to judge : Yet, for 
fafhion fake, they v/ill be always finding fault?. 
Onefycophant or other is perpetually railing againfr 
me, when they find any of the Vizirs, and other 
Grandees, in a humour to hearken to them. I 
fancy it is for want of difcourfe. When they have 
nothing elfe to talk of, then they fall a cenfuring of 
poor Mahmut, who undergoes more fatigues than 
an hundred thoiifand (uch 

* Thn word Thlguch Thleuch * as they. I cannot 
ms^f^the-lfcaian, im - e what they aim at, 
and the En ■h:h Tranfli- , ° r • 1 lU t 7 ,] 

tnr i-„ „.» ~ « , <-, ,. unleis it be, th?t they would 
tor knows not what to . r-n -n- 1 

make of it. " ave me turn *-hninan, and 

enter myfelf into fome mo- 

Suffer me, my noble friend, to tell thee, that a 
man cannot want for temptation to fuch a change 
of hk faith, withou? being confined to a reclufe life. 
He may be a friar or a libertine, a prieft or a lay- 
man, a zealot or an hypocrite, a chimney-fweeper 

Vol. VI. H or 


or an abbot, which he pleafes, according as he is 
qualified. And I can allure thee, he that would be 
a good man, which is beyond all the reft, has in- 
centives enough among the profeftbrs of the Naza- 
rene? worfhip, though the greateft part are wicked. 

As for me, I never thought that true religion con- 
fided in empty names and titles, in forms and ce- 
remonies, parties and factions, or in any thing but 
in a life conformable to reafon and to the will of 

. They take me here at Paris for a Moldavian ram- 
bler, that has read fomething more than the parifh- 
clerks. And becaufe they know I underftand Greek,- 
Sclavonian, and two or three languages more, they 
would fain make me a Prieft, Doctor, Orator, any 
thing that I would accept of, to ferve an intereit. 
And I am compelled to ufe either a downright hu- 
mility, or forced pride, that I may handibmcìy evade 
their courtfiiip ; convincing them fometimes, that 
I am not fit for fuch dignities ; at other feafons, tel- 
ling them I am above inferior orders, and that no- 
thing lefs than an Archbiihop'spall^or a Cardinal's 
hat, will fatisfy my ambition. 

Thus I really dilfemble, and jell: myfelf in earneft 
out of ample eftates, to ferve God, his Prophet, and 
the Grand Sigfiior : Yet I am traduced at the Se- 
raglio for an hypocrite, an Infidel, and God knows 

Here honeft Eliachim, the Jew, undergoes the 
fame fate ; whilft thofe of his own party, especially 
the Rabbies, proclaim him every-where for a Chris- 
tian, and the Nazarenes point at him as a Turk. 
Only my landlord, where I before lodged, who is 
an honeft, old, drunken Fleming, takes Eliachim 
for a Saint, and (wears he will have him'canonifed 
after his death : And all this for no other reafon, 
but bècaufe Eliachim treats him now and then with 
a bottle of wine : So partial afcall men to their own 
humours and interefr. But the truth of it is Elia- 
chim is an excellent counterfeit, and my landlord is 
net the only man who has this veneration for him. 



He paflfes for a very good Catholick, and a holy 
man, among a great many others. His looks are io 
demure, his mien Co compofcd, and he has fuch 
godly diicourie with him about the focraments, 
indulgences, miracle^ and graces of the Church, 
when he is in company with Chriitians, that he 
would deceive the Spaniihlnquiiition, and cheat the 
devil himfelf. 

Such is the violence we are forced to ufe to our- 
felres, who live in thefe hazardous ftations. And 
yet nobody confiders us, or regards our zeai for the 
Grand Signior. Our reputation, liberty, and lives 
'are precarious. We are not only in perpetrai dan- 
ger of the revenge of the Nazarenes, who are our 
real enemies ; but alio e'xpofed to the envy, ma- 
licej and perfecution of thofe who ought to be our 

I hav« often complained of the malicious calum- 
nies thrown on me by Ichingi Cap-Oglani and his 
afTociates ; and theMiniilers were pleated to receive 
my apologies : But now 1 fufpect. greater treachery. 
I lent an account to the Reis Effendi, fome time 
ago", how I was dogged up and down the ftreets of 
Paris by a fellow whom I knew Hot, and what ap- 
prehenfions that put me upon. I will acquaint thee 
farther, that, being afraid of an affaffin in the dark, 
I armed my breaft with a quire of paper, which is 
known to be dagger-proof. 1 was not at all miftaken 
in my guefs : t or the raft night, as I was returning 
home to my lodgings, between the hours of nine and 
ten, I received a {tab in my aforefaid breair-plate, 
right againft my heart. It was not fo dark, btrt I 
could perceive the perfon who gave me this blow ; 
and felf-preiervation taught rne immediately to feize 
on him, and grapple as clofe as I could, extending 
his arms with mine, at a good diltance from our 
bodies. I am but little and fhort, yet I have a 
ftrong fpring with my body, when I am onceroufed, 
as thou wilt imagine I was now. Befides, I bave 
generally great prefence of mind in time of danger, 
which fails not to prompt me with the readied: and 
H 2 


Bioft proper courfe to efcape. In a word, I wrefrcd 
the poniard out of the ruffian's hand, and {tabbed 
him de2d with it, not thinking it fare to make a 
noiie, butchufing rather to die, if my frrength fail- 
ed me, than, by crying out for help, run the rifque ' 
of worfe ccnfequence : For I had long expected 
ibme fuch attempt as this upon my life, from my 
-enemies at the Porte. And, concluding this fellow 
to be one employed by them for that purpofe, I 
thought it no prudence to have him feized by the 
watch and punifhed by the law, left he mould, in 
revenge, difcover me and my bufmefs to the Infi- 
dels. Therefore, I played the executioner myfelf, 
and lent him out of hand to another world, to pre- 
vent his telling tales in this. Thou wilt fay there 
was no injustice in this, lìnee it was in my own de- 
fence, and to fave the honour of my Sovereign. As 
he fell, he uttered thefe words, in a faint, broken 
tone : ' Mahmut, my death will be revenged before 
* long, and you cannot efcape the trap that is laid 
' for you.' Then he expired. 

This made me prefently conclude that he was 
-employed by fomebody at the Porte : For how cli'z 
inould he know my true name ? But, upon fecond 
thoughts, I cannot be certain but that he was {et at 
work by my old Sicilian Mailer, lìnee he knew my 
name alfa. However, I have greater reafon to fuf- 
pecl: the former ; becaufe it is not probable the In- 
fidels would take fo chargeable and troublefome a 
method to murder me. Neither had he provocation 
enough. Befides, for aught I know, he may be 
dead. God only is acquainted with the truth. How- 
ever, to prevent future aiiaults of this nature, and 
a great many other inconveniencies, I have removed 
myfelf to a new lodging, in the moll obfeure corner 
of the city, and very remote from the place where I 
I: , ed before, being refolved alfo not to frequent the 
Court, nor any publick places, as I have done for- 
merly, but to take other meafurcs for intelligence* 

What I delire of thee is to reprefent my cafe fa- 
vourably to the Divan, that they may zpprovc of 



my concludi:. Do alfo whatever e\fe thou judged 
the part of a countryman and a friend. 

As for the event, I patiently wait the appointment 
of Deftiny. For it is in vain to be too foiiicitous. 

• Adieu, high-born Kerker, and forget not Mah- 
mut in his diitrefs. For that is the time wherein 
true friendfnip is tried. 

Paris, 17th of the 5th Moon, 
of the Year 1664.. 


To Nathan Ben Saddi, a Jew, at Vienna. 

BE not difhearrmcd -st the troubles which thou, 
encountered: in this world of lotteries. But 
remember the adage of thy r;bbies, c that evil Which 
4 is old at night is yet the offspring of every roorn- 
' ing.' 1 he ages are meafured exaclly, and our 
hours are checquered with equal mixtures of happi- 
nefs and misfortune. We are not born to Gur own 
defires. And, as not a man of us can remember 
how he was formed in the womb, fo have we iio 
reafon to repine at what happens to us, fince we 
came out of it. Whatever power, v/ifdom, and 
goodnefs, took: care of us then, and afterwards in- 
fpired our mothers and nurfes with tenderuefs, and*" 
a thou land degrees of patience beyond what is re- 
corded of Job, the fame wili provide for us to^ 

The deiire of knowledge killed Adam, and the 
fameluft, propagated with his feed, deftroys all his 
pofterity. We can never be fatisfied in our confine- 
ment to this world, and therefore we flounce and' 
flutter on all fides, like fifh, or birds in a net, to 
find a way out: Whillr we do but intangle our- 
felves the fafter, render our reflraint more uneafy,. 
and delav the pofEbàlity of our reieafe. Whereas, 
*H 3 patience 


patience would foon fet us fixe, and rank us among 
£ h e 1 mmortal s . One thinks to e fcape by high drin Ic- 
ing ; another by fevers of love and glory; and a 
tìtkd ccr.ceus he ihaJi. by his gold, be able to bribe 
the watch, who guard the lait paflès of this life, 
and perfuade them to let him (camper fafe to Para- 
dise, Alas ! Alas ! All this is but the ibphiftry of 
our pafiions. it is in vain to think of haftening or 
retarding our fate ; our time is let, though we know 
not the period. Refig nation is our belt leilbn, and 
prudence the next. 

Perhaps, thou wilt call this a fermon, rather than 
a letter. But I adv:fe thee not to read it with the 
eyes of a Stoick ; that is, whether it pieafes thee or 
not, regard it no farther than it agrees with reafon. 
I would fain afk of the man who expecls to have 
his will ac com pi lined in this life, whether he can 
prevail upon the fun to rife any morning within the 
Arcfic circle, or the moon to defcend Tome night, 
and fweep the fnow off" from the top of Mount A- 
thos ? So inexorable is our deftiny, fo unalterable 
the decrees of Fate. 

Be not troubled, therefore, at any thing; but re- 
member, that thou art a part of the univerfe, and 
that nothing can betide thee which is not for the 
good of the whole. 

What I have faid is to arm thee againd all the 
contingencies which may aflault the« unawares, 
rufhing upon thee on a fuddtn from behind the veil 
which covers all the defigns of Providence and na- 
ture, defiiny and chance. 

I myCeif have lately experienced, that it is good 
to be thus prepared for future events, having nar- 
rowly efcaped death by a little timely forecaft. 

It is nor. neceflary for thee, at this time, to know 
all the circumitances of my danger. Suffice it to 
fay, that I was afiaffinated in the dark, killed him 
that deiigned to be my murderer, and am now forced 
to remove my habitation. 

Eliachim, thy brother in Ifrael, will be at Vien- 
na within fourteen days. He will give thee a far- 


ther account of all things which it behoves thee to 
know ; with frelh inftruótions concerning my new 
lodgings, and the method we muft obferve for the 
future in conveying letters. We cannot be too 
cautious in the Grand Signior's bufinefs. ' 

As for our own lives, let us imagine they were 
only lent us to ferve him, on whole life t fo many mil- 
lions of lives depend. 

Paiis, 1 8th of the 5th Moon, 
of the Year 1664. 


To Zeidi Alamanzi, a Merchant at Venice. 

I A M obliged to fend circular letters at this time 
to all the Haves of the Grand Signior vfho have 
bufinefs* with me at Paris ; to inform them, that, 
upon a very important emergency, I am forced to 
change my lodgings. I have already fent away dif- 
patches to Conftantinople and Vienna on this ac- 
count, to prevent the errors they might commit in 
addreiHng their letters. For the fame reafcn I now 
write to thee ; thou needefr. not inquire after the 
occafion of this conduci -, nor wonder at any thing 
that happens to us extraordinary in thefe hazardous 
porTs. We muft expect to encounter with rubs and 
obftacles in ferving our great Mafter. If thefe diffi- 
culties have but their proper effect, which is to 
whet our inventions,, increafe our diligence, and 
confirm us in our zeal, all fhall go well. 

The foul of man never difplays her faculties and 
perfections with greater lufcre, than w T hen fhe is in- 
vironed with perils. Thefe are the trials of forti- 
tude, prudence, juftice, and all the virtues. He- 
that fmks under misfortunes and crofs events, has 
either no foul, or it is aflcep. 

H 4 Courage 


Courage then, Fellow-Have, and let thy heart 
fccat a continuai alarm. Be not aifmayed at any 
thing, nor let felf-love bereave thee of thy honour : 
But go on in thy duty, and truit thy foul to God. 

Tnou Jiveft in a city where virtue and vice are in 
emulation, ftill ftriving to furpafs each other : There 
are not more wicked people in the world than Ve- 
nice affords, nor yet more pious and good. Follow 
thou the belt patterns, and be happy. But do no- 
thing by bare imitation ; for that is the right way 
to become an hypocrite. Let all thy aciions pro- 
ceed from vital principles of reafen and generofuy 
in thyfelf; and, when thou feeft rare exampL s, let 
them ferve only to awaken and roufe thy innate 

Send me no letters till thou haft received frefh or- 
ders from the Porte. They will furnifh thee with 
zll necefTary inftructions. After that, let me hear 
rrom thee as often as thou wilt. Thy difpatches 
vili be always welcome. Let them contain matter 
of intelligence chiefly, and that of the fremeft date. 
Penetrate into the counfels of the repubiick where 
thou rehdeit. Infmuate thyfelf with the Senators 
and Grandees. Dive into their hearts, and unlock 
their fecrets. Communicate nothing but the truth 
to- the Minifters of the Porte, or to me. If cnou 
cani!: difcover their inclinations to a peace, or their 
abfolute need of it, thou wilt do cii acceptable fer- 
vice to the Grand Signior, and to the whole em- 
pire of the Faithful : For then we bring them to 
cur own term?. 

Zcid'iy to God I recommend thee, defiring him 
to preferve thee from wine, women, and cards, 

which are the three capital temptations of Venice. 


P lis, ift of the 6ù Mean, 
: Year 1664. 




To Murar, Bafla. 

I Cannot eafily divine the reafons why I am To 
much neglected by the Minifters of the Porte. 
Above four years have pailed away, wherein many 
notable events have happened ; yet nobody thought 
it worth his labour to inform Mahmutof any thing. 
So that all the notice I could gain of remote tran- 
facrions are owing either to the publick news of Eu- 
rope, or, at bed, to ibme particular letters of mer- 
chants reflding in this city, with whom I conferve 
an intimacy, ior the lake of intelligence, and for 
other caufes. 

Thus I mould have been in ignorance to this day, 
what ifiue the Bafìa of Aleppo's rebellion had, were 
it not for an accidental interview I lately had of 
fome French travellers, who came from Conftanti- 
nople. Thefe informed me of the fudden fate of 
that Baffa, when he was at the heighth of his gran- 
deur, within a few days march of the Imperial city, 
at the head of a potent army, and jvSt upon the point 
of accommodation with the Grand Signior. They, 
much extol his bravery and refolution : For the 
French are naturally lovers of fuch ao dare boldly 
oppofe their Sovereign. They equally condemn the 
fly perfidiou fnefs of Mortaza Bafla, to whole fare 
conduci: the generous rebel fruirei hi* life, and by 
that eaimefs loft it. Yet they applaud Mortaza's 
loyalty, courage, and wifcom, with the eminent 
fervices he afterwards did the empire, in leading the 
army againd Ragòtfki, Prince of Tranfylvania, 
which at length lifted him to the government of 

All thefe things had been hid from me, were not 
the Nazarenes my intelligencers. Nor fhould. I 
have known how tne rebel! on was carried on, after 
his death, by his revengeful nephew, by the {en of 
Chufaein Bafla, by a Bey of Egypt, and ether male- 
li 5 contents-, 


contents. Yet fuch paffages are fit for a man In my 
polì: to be acquainted with, that he may ha^e a clear 
idea of" his Matter's circumltances,. and io apply 
himfelf more effectually to ferve him. 

It had not been ami ft, if I had received timely 
intelligence of the death of Prince Ragotfki, in re- 
gard there was always a private correfpondence be- 
tween him ?md this Court; which ceafing by his 
death, it had been worth my pains to cb ferve, whe- 
ther it would be continued by his fu.cceilbr, or what 
other mcafures they would take. 

It is true I was acquainted with this, but not by 
the Mnifters g( the Forte. I heard alfo of all the 
following commotions in Tranfylvania, occafioned 
by the different factions of Michael Apafi and Ke- 
raini Janon, the two royal Princes. I was not forry 
for this news, knowing that the divifions of the Na- 
zarenes frrer.gthen the unity and force of the Muf- 
fulman empire. I was likewife informed of the fate 
cf Mortaza, Balla of Babvlon, who fell a victim 
to the Grand Vizir's jealoufy ; with many other 
pafTages, But neither from the Porte, nor from any 
other hands, could I find the leali: intelligence of 
the Venetian war, and what progrefs our arms have 
made in Candia, Dalmatia, and the other domi- 
nions of the republick. Which makes me to con- 
clude that either the Grand Signior's refldence at 
Adrianople abated his inclinations to martial affairs., 
which is alfo the common opinion of the Chriftians 
here in the Weft ; or that the war in Hungary, for. 
a while, fuperfeded all other defigns. 

However it be, it is certain that the fuccefs of the 
Ottoman arms, in taking Newhawfel, LeventZ, 
Novigrod, and other places ofMtrength, with the 
terrible incurfions of the Tartars through Moravia 
and Auftria, put the whole German empire into a 

freat coniternation, Ambaffadors are fent from the 
mperial Court to all the Chriftian Princes, im- 
ploring their affiftance in this general danger of 
I* u rope. 



Here is one arrived at this Court, whom they call 
Count Strozzi, a perfon of good addrefs, and mal- 
ter of much eloquence. He has prevailed on the 
French King to maintain, at his own charge, fix 
thoufand horfe and foot to ferve againft the victo- 
rious Ofmans. A great many perfons of quality 
have lifted themfelves as volunteers ; and the meaner 
ibrt talk of nothing but marching to Conftanti-- 
nople, and driving the Turks back toScythia,.from 
whence they firft came. 

Courteous Balla, thou wilt laugh at the vanity 
of thefe Infidels, who confider not, that, by the 
grace of God, and miracles of his Prophet, our" 
Emperor is the King of all the Kings on the earth, 
the mightieit of the mighty ones ; the phoenix of 
honour, power, and unparalleled majefty ; brother 
and companion of the fun, moon, and itars; a Prince 
of a myiterious and fublime lineage, in whom are - 
centered all glory and excellency 3 the fhadow of 
God on earth ! 

The breath of fame goes before the van-couriers - 
of his armies, purifying all places, and filling them 
with veneration and terror. The dull: that is raifed 
by his heroick cavalry, pa/Ting through the air,, 
caufes trembling and allonifhment in the hearts of 
the Chriftians. The Infidels mail fall before the- 
fatal fcymetars of True Believers. 

May the angel of the houfe of Ifmael continue to- 
profper the holy offspring, to extend their conqueffo, 
and propagate the faith unblemifhed -, that the 
names of Alia and Mahomet may be heard in all; 
climates, and from the utmoft borders of the earth, . 

Bsfisj 5th of the 6th Moon, - 
of. the Year 1664.. 

lie eet. 



To I four, his Kin-fman, a Merchant, at 
A ferae an. 

IH A V E often wondered why, amongft the other 
nations in Chrirrendom, thou wouldeft not be- 
llow the leaft tranfient vifit upon Spain» But, upon 
more mature confederation, I find thou art a man of 
judgment in travelling. That country lies under a 
very ill character for the penury of all things ne- 
cefiary to fuflain the lives of the natives ; and, by 
confequence, it is not to be thought they can fpare 
much for grangers. A very in hofpi table region, 
abound ing in beggars, thieves, and drones : Fuil of 
wine and gold, yet barren of corn and rich people. 

Thcu wilt not think this a paradox, when thou 
malt confide:-, that the Spaniards have all their corn 
from France, Germany, or Sicily : And that, for 
this and other reafons, Spain is but like a lieve, 
through wHich the immenfe trea aires of Peru and 
Mexico are drained into other countries. 

You may travel fome days together in Spain, 
without feeing any thing, fave the dry face of a de- 
fart. And, if you chance to meet with a houfe, 
wherein you may fhelter yourfelf and your horfe, 
expert no better than a Ramezan entertainment. 
For you muff: fallai! day, and think yourfelf much 
refr.-ec^ed, if you can get a few onions or other roots 
atta herbs, with a morfei of bread and flefh at night, 
to keep you from being fenfible, that you are actu- 
ally ftarving. 

Then, the inhabitants are the proudefl people 
oa earth. You fhall meet with none but Kings, 
Princes, Viceroys, or at leaft men that conceit 
themfelves fuch. They are alio mercilefs in their 
revenge; cruel, obdurate, covetous, morofe, and 
inexorable. In a word, Spain is the Jefuits Para- 
dise, the Jews purgatory, and the hell of women. 

I there- 


I therefore commend thy fortune, or thy pru- 
dence rather, which would not fufFer thee to fall 
into the hands of thofe barbarians ; nor think it 
worth thy pains to breathe an air infected with fo> 
many vices. Thou haft palled through many more 
inviting provinces, and art at laft happily feated to 
thy mind. Improve thy opportunities in doing 

I fent a letter to our coufin Solyman, advifing 
him to give thee a vifit. If he comes, receive him 
kindly, and perform the part of a kinfman 3 put all 
expences to my account, and remember that no 
man is born for himfeff. 

Paris, 6lh of the 7th Moon, 
of the Year 1664-. 

To Afis, BafTa, 

AL L Europe is alarmed with the mighty pre- 
parations which cur invincible Sovereign is 
making to invade the German empire. Great is 
their confternaticn and fear, and couriers are every- 
where running up and down from one kingdom and 
Court to another, to remonirrate the common dan- 
ger, and beg alHftahce. Every body appears zea- 
lous in a caufe which concerns all Chriftendom ; 
and the French King has lent the Emperor 8coo 

The Duke of Beaufort is alTo gone with a fqua- 
dron of mips to encounter the Corfairs of Algiers 
and other dominions of Barbary. 

The Pope has fent to the Emperor's afliftance fix 
thou fand foot and two thonfand horfe. And the 
reft of theTmperor's allies are raifing levies for him 
as faft as they can : It being current news, that the 
Grand Signior, inperfon, is at the head of two hun- 


dred thou fund men, entering into Hungary as a 
Conqueror : That he has taken above forty towns, 
ruined all the country where he palled through, and 
that in a little time he will be at the walls of 

In the mean time, this Court appears infenfible 
of the general danger which threatens Chriftendom. 
They are altogether taken up with ballads, plays, 
and leading, minding their own intereft more than 
that of their neighbours, and revelling as if the 
King of France were fole Monarch of the world. 

Here is arrived a Legate from Rome, to compofe 
the differences between the Pope and this Crown. 
His name is Cardinal Chifi. He is received with 
unparalleled magnificence, as if he were an angel 
from heaven ; for the French King loves to {hew. 
his grandeur on fuch occafions- Btfides, all the 
nations which are in the communion of the Latin 
Church have an unrcferved veneration for the Ro- 
man Mufti, whom they efteem the fu-cceiTor of Pe- 
ter, the Prince of the apoflles. 

This young Monarch has a large foul. The whole 
world teems too little to fatisfy his ambition. He 
lays the fcundaiion of defigns greater than thofe of 
Alexander the Conqueror of Alia. He heaps up 
money at a prodigious rate, raifes vaft armies, builds 
magnificent palaces, keeps Kings in penfion, fup- 
pcrts many Princes in Germany, and, in a word, 
commands more of them than does? the Emperor 
himfdf, who is their lawful Sovereign. 

Yet, after ail, I cannot perceive that he lofes any 
degree of that refpecr. which he owesj and which his 
predceeffors have always paid to the Grand Signior, 
who is the undeniable arbiter of the whole world. 

God grant our Sovereign 1-ong life, perpetual vic- 
tories, and a good ftomach to his meat, which the 
King of France wants to the accomplimment of his 
happinefs ; for, at prefent, he eats like a fparrow. . 

Paris, 1 9th of the Sth Moon, 
of .tjje Year 1664. 

LE T~ 



To Hamct, Reis Effendi,, Principal Secretary; 
of the Ottoman Empire. 

THOU wilt perceive the vaft refpe& I have 
for thee by my frequent difpatches. 1 hy 
commands to me are as the laws and fanctions of 
the Ottoman empire, which I will never violate.. I 
am no flatterers witnefs my letters to fome of the 
Grandees, wherein I have not fpared to reprove, 
their vices, errors, and male-adminiftration. If a 
Bafiii has been unjuft, feditious, or engaged in re- 
bellious practices ; if he has proved an extortioner, 
a drunkard, or a tyrant ; he has not efcaped with- - 
out a due reprimand. I have been bold in correct- 
ing, advifing, and giving counfel to the greateil Mi- 
nifters in the empire. And this was a province ap- 
pointed me by the flower of fu b lime glory, the phoe- 
nix of honour, fole favourite and truftee of the 
Grand Signior, the Vizir Azem ; in whofe. cuftody 
were the feals of imperial fecrets, majeftick decrees, 
and royal edicts ; who, being the primum mobile 
of the refulgent MuiTulman fiate, gave life, activi- 
ty, and order to ail the inferior orbs, fprings, and 
inftruments of government. 

I received this command many years ago, and he 
who gave it to me is gone to the world of fpirits. 
Yet the injunction. remains in force, being framped 
with the myfterious fignet,. the character of fupreme 
and immutable authority. . In obedience to which. I 
have never warped" or winched from the duty in- 
joined me. And, to demonstrate that I did not do 
this in a vain oftentation of the power which was 
given me, I have not failed all along to pay a man 
of merit the attachment and veneration that were 
his due. 

It is with inexpreflible pleafure I throw myfelf at 
the feet of a wife and virtuous, man ; with extreme 



complacency I kifs the duft whereon he treads, and 
unfold all my faculties in expreffing my efteem. I 
am full of rlatonick love, and build altars in my 
breaft, to a foul deferving the innocent facrifices of 
amorous paffions, the incenfe of gratitude, and- a 
pure aflectioJ*, an holocaufl of integrity and loyal 

I protei!:, by the hopes I have of fitting on the 
banks of the rivers in Eden, and of being regaled 
in the delectable chiofes of Farad ife, that 1 honour 
thy learning and other fage perfections ; that un- 
blemifhed life, whofe excellent morals, and the 
unparalleled fweetnefs of moddry, which crowns 
all thy actions. But I will fay no more to a man 
who cannot hear his own praiies. The befb me- 
thod of expreffing my regard will be to anfwer 
thy expectations, in prefenting thee with the true 
portraiture of thofe Wdtern nations and people 
which thou fo paffionately coveteft. 

I mufr dehre thee to excufe the confufion and 
want of order in my letters, fmce f fend thee a med- 
ley of remarks, as they come to my knowledge and 

It is not long ago fmce I wrote tolfouf Eb'n Ach- 
med, a kinfman of mine, a merchant at Aftracan ; 
and, .among other things, I took notice of his not 
going to fee Spain in his travels • for he has been in 
moft of the kingdoms of Europe and over ail Afia 
and Afr : ca. In that letter I defcribed Spain in its 
worft colours. Now I will fhew it to thee in ano- 
ther figure, without fwerv'ng from the truth : For 
every country has its perfections and excellencies, 
as well as its defects and blemifhes. 

If Spain has a barren foil for corn, nature has 
made amends for that fault, in the purity of the air 
and the plenty of fruits : The lands of her rivers are 
of the moft pei feet gold. Her village?, though few, 
are greater and more populous than fome cities, wit- 
nefs Madrid. Her mountains arc of iron, marble, 
and jafper: Her vai lies underlaid with lead, brafs, 
and filver. Spain of old was the TarfhinS of So- 


lomon, the Ophir of the Phoenicians, and the Peru 
of Rome. 

In thofe days the inhabitants of Spain were fa- 
mous for their fortitude and invincible conftancy. 
It is recorded that the inhabitants of Sagunto, in 
the province of Valencia, when they were befieged 
by Hannibal, and greatly opprefTed by the Carthagi- 
nians, chofe to burn themfelves, with their wives, 
children, and all their wealth, rather than yield to 
their enemies. 

Their fidelity v/as alfo fo remarkable, that fonie 
of the Roman Emperors had always a guard of Spa- 
niards near their perfons ; as the French King, the 
Pope, and other Princes do now confide in the/ 
trufty SwifTes. 

But, though there remain ftill fome fcattered 
remnants of the ancient virtue among them, efpe- 
cially in Bifcay and Caftile, yet the greater! part of 
the Spaniards are degenerated. They make no 
figure now in the world, but only for their gold 
and the vafrnefs of their dominions ; for they pollefs 
the beft half of America, are Lords of two mighty 
empires, and not without large territories in the 
other three quarters of the world. Yet the too ^vZr.i 
extent of their power has weakened its vigour J the 
affluence of their wealth has really impoverished 
them, and, by {training their honour too high, they 
have cracked it, being now of little or no eiteem in 
Europe. Their glory fades at the rifing grandeur of 
France, which makes radiant and fvvift advances 
towards its zenith. This young Monarch is alrea- 
dy become the arbiter of all Chr.ftendom. 

Accomplished Minifter, there is nothing in na- 
ture ftedfaft ; the world is but an eternal circula- 
tion of events, vicimtudes, and changes, without 
beginning or end. Only God remains immutable 
in his own efTence, which is the center of every 
thing. May thou and I meet there, and then we 
filali be eternally happy. Adieu. 

Paris, iathof the 9th Moon, 
of the Year 1604. 




To Mufu Abu'l Yahyan, ProfefTor'of Phi- 
lofophy at Fez. 

BY the faith and obedience I owe to Mohammed, 
our holy Lawgiver; by the Alcoran, and all 
that is efleemed facred among the Mufiulmans ; I 
fwear thy long filence made me conclude my firft 
letter was unwelcome to thee. But now I am con- 
vinced of the contrary : Thy generous anfwer has 
Femoved my apprehenftont, ami filled me with com- 
placency. Henceforth I inali reft allured and con- 
fident of thy friendfhip, promifmg myfelf vaft im- 
provements from fo learned a converfation, though 
only by letters at many hundred leagues diftarice. 

As to what thou requireft pf me concerning the 
various languages of Europe, I will inform thee the 
beft I can, according to the obfervations I have 
made, and the intelligence I have received from men 
of letters, and from books, which are the pictures 
cf learned fouls, mirrors wherein they may behold 
their own perfections, whilit they are on earth, and, 
after their departure to the invifibles, other men 
may fee the interior beauties of their mind repre- 
fented to the life. For words a/e the perfect fculp- 
ture of the inteilefr, or at leaft its mezzotinto. 
They are the exprefs portraiture of divine and hu- 
man reafon. Thus the Alcoran is called, by fome 
of our holy Docìors, c the true image of original 
' and uncreated wifdom.' 

Now, of all the words and languages on earth, 
thou knoweft the pre-eminence has been for ever- 
given to thofe of the Eaft ; and amongft them to' 
the Arabian, both in regard of its purity and of its 
antiquity, from whence it is ftyled the virgin mo- 
ther of languages, thedialeci of the bleffed above. 
^ Thou knoweft, that for this reafon it is the True 
Faithful covet no fpecies of learning more ardently 



than to be perfectly fkilled in fo divàie a fpeech, 
wherein the volume of celeftiftl majefty was penned 
in heaven before the throne of God, and fent down 
on earth .by the hand of Gabriel, Prince of the mef- 
fengers who fly oft the errands of the Omnipotent. 
It was fent, I fay, to the Prophet, who could nei- 
ther write nor read, that the world might be con- 
vinced of its divine original. Yet the incredulous 
will not believe : Tho' it is manifeft to any man of 
impartial fenfe, that a perfon altogether ignorant of 
letters could not poflibly compofe a book, the molt 
elegant thatever was penned in the world, and where- 
in not the leaft blemifh or contradiction can bz 
found, from the chapter of the preface to the lait 
verficle, which winds up the whole volume. Oh ! 
obdurate hearts of Infidels ! Oh ! wilfully blind, 
that fhut their eyes againfl the fplendors of eternal 
light ! Oh ! refolvedly deaf, that flop their ears* 
againft the voice of God and his Prophet, neither 
will they liften to the foftefl whifpers that are waft- 
ed from Paradife. 

Such are the Nazarenes, who, for the fake of the 
G?eek and Roman tongues, of which they are paf- 
fionately inamoured, educate their children in a fair 
way to believe all the rnonitrous fictions of the an- 
cient poets, or, at leaft, all the lying tales and 
legends of their own piiefts, which are ten time3 
more fabulous than the former, and more incon- 
fiftent with reafon. And this they do rather than 
to be at the pains of learning Arabick, which would 
inftruci: them in truths as clear and ferene as the 
orient fun. 

I fhall fay little of thofe two ancient languages of 
Greece and Rome, in regard they, being now grown 
obfolete, are only to be learned in fchools ; thou, 
no doubt, art verfed in them ad unguem, as the La- 
tins phrafe it. 

That which feems propereft. for me to inform 
thee of is, that the Roman or Latin tongue appears 
like an old antiquated mother thruft out of doors by 
her four ungrateful daughters, Italian, French, 



Spanifh, and Portuguefe. Thefe arc her natural 
offspring., begot during the Roman conqueits in the" 
Weil, and degenerating after that empire was in its 
decline. So tnat now they are taken for no better 
than mongrels and baftards. In Spanifh there is a 
great mixture of Gothic and Morilco words \ the 
French retain many of their old Gauliih idioms. 
The Italian is corrupted with a hotch-potch of 
words, left by the Vandals, Huns, and Lombards. 
Yet that fault is recompenfed by abundance of 
Greek etymologies. As for the Portuguefe, it is 
but a dialect ot Spanifh, and lies under the fama 

The only pure maternal languages, now cur. ent 
among the common people in any part of Europe, 
are the Teutonick, Sclavonick, and Britifh : The 
firft is fpoken in Germany to perfection, but corrupt- 
ly in Sweden, Denmark, and the United Provinces. 
The lecond is common to the Hungarians, Molda- 
vians, Poles, Ruffians, and many other nations. 
The laft is confined to the Welfh, a people inha- 
biting a corner of Great Britain, driven thither by 
the victorious Saxons, their conquerors, above a 
thoufand years ago. As for the reft, they are only 
mixed dialects, and fo not worth taking notice of; 
excepting one mountainous part of Spain, where 
the inhabitants are faid to fpeak pure Arabick at 
this day. They are fuppofed to be a remnant of 
the Moors. 

The criticks, here in the Welt, ufe to give thefe 
following rules in reference to languages. If you 
would addrefs to God, fpeak in Greek or Latin, 
becaufe of their antiquity, purity, and majeitick 
loftinefs : If to Kings, fpeak in Spanifh, in regard 
of its flow pronunciation and gravity : If to men, 
ufe Italian ; to women, French ; to dogs, Welfh : 
But, if you would affright an enemy, or the devil 
himfelf, fpeak High Dutch. 

They relate a ftory of a German AmbaiTador at 
the French Court, who delivered his mefiage in 
Teutonick 5 which, when a certain Grandee heard, 



and took notice of its harm and ftrong emphafis, he 
fwore it was his opinion, that this was the language 
wherein God curfed Adam, Eve, and the Serpent. 
The German, turning to him, anfwered brifkly, 

* It is pomble, Monfleur, it may be fo ; but then I 

* I hope you will grant, that French was the occa- 
4 non of this curfe, when the Devil chofe to tempt 
1 Eve in that language for its effeminacy, wheedling 

* her, à-la-mode de Paris, to eat the forbidden 

* fruit.' 

Renowned Mufu, do me the honour of frequent 
letters : Inftrucl: me in things whereof I am igno- 
rant : Make me familiar with the remarkables of 
the countries where thou refideft : Tranfport Fez, 
with the other parts of Africa which are known to 
thee ; tranfport them, I fay, fucceffively to Paris, 
every moon, on a piece of paper, and I will fend 
thee all Chriftendom by way of exchange : For 
thus it becomes the lovers of wifdom to barter for 

Paris, 10th of die nth Mcon, 
cf the Year 1664. 


To Ofman Adrooneth, Aflrologer to the 
Sultan, at Adrianople. 

THOSE of thy profeffion, here in the Weft, 
are wholly taken up in contemplating a cer- 
tain comet which appears in. the firmament. It is 
of that fort v/hich they call bearded. And fome 
will have it to refemble a lion ; others fay it is like 
a dragon, a crocodile, a bear, and I know not what. 
There is hardly a fpecies of four-footed beafts to 
which the giddy rabble do not refembb it. And 
fome affert it to be the perfect figure of a fword. 



The mathematicians are {training all their (kill 
to take the true dimenfions of this ccleftial appa» 
rition. The painters are drawing it to the life ; the 
poets are making fongs and ballads of it ; and the 
more learned fages are framing aft ronomical fchemes, 
like fo many gins or traps to catch this meteor in. 
They watch all its motions, and dog it from one 
heavenly houfe to another $ they track it through 
the molt intricate parts of the fky. 

If it Rands" ftill, or makes a tranfient addrefs to 
zny planet, eminent ftar, or conilellation, we are 
prefently alarmed with the news of it, and bid to 
be upon our guard, as if there was fome mifchicf 
plotting again ft us above. The world is harangued 
with fatal predictions of wars, famines, earthquakes, 
and other calamities, the fure confequences of this 
fuppofed prodigy. 

Tell me, thou who art converfant in the fcience 
of the fiars, and the hiyfterious philofophy of na- 
ture, what thefe comets are ? Whether they be on- 
ly exhalations drawn up into the higher region of 
the air by the force of the fun ; or whether they 
be more folid and durable fubitences ? Whether they 
be of a pofLhumous origin, like the clouds, hail, 
rain, fnow, and other matters, the daily products 
of nature, the upfrart offspring of the elements ? 
Or whether they are in the rank of thofe beings 
whofe antiquity is untraceable, which are as old as 
the world ; fuch as the fun, moon, ftars, and this 
earth whereon we tread ? 

For my part, I believe it is no herefy in fcience, 
whatever it is in religion, to Hart new maxims. 
Por aught we know, both in the one and in the 
other, what we call innovation is but a reviving 
thofe principles, which, through defuetude, or the 
corruption of times, are grown obfolete, out of 
date, and forgotten, though really the moil: primi- 
nd ancient truths in the world. 

Thus, I cannot forbear thinking there are fome 
other globes, fcattered x:^ and down the infinite ex- 




panfe, beiides thofe whofe continual brightnefs-ex- 
pofes them to our eyes. 

The moon, it is known, with Venus, and other 
planets, receive their light gradually from the fun 
by hemifphereg : So that it is certain each of thefe 
orbicular bodies is always dark by half. And where 
is the folecifm, if we fuppofe there are other opa-que 
bodies in the firmament which receive no light at 
all, and, by their nature and qualities, are inca- 
pable of receiving any but from within themfelves ? 
So we may fuppofe thefe comets to be fuch folid 
globes, made refplendent by an eruption of their 
central fires. 

God only knows the truth in fuch cafes. And 
thou art better able to decide thefe queftions than I. 
Therefore, referring it to thy fage judgment, I pray 
him who made the itars, and orders their dominion 
on earth, to blefs thee with favourable influences, 
that thy foul may be always like a land flourifhing 
under the fweet afpecf s of Orion and the Pleiades. 

Paris, * 2 d of the 12 th Moon, 
of the Year 1664. 


To Hamct, Reis Effendi, Principal Secretary 
of the Ottoman Empire. 

TH E .French have had fo many occafions of 
joy of late, that it is hard to determine which 
affects them molt nearly. 

The fatisfaction which the Pope gave this Mo- 
narch, for the injuries formerly done to his Ambaf- 
fador at Rome, began the triumph of the French 
Court. I have already fent intelligence of that 
quarrel, and how high the refentments of the King 
flew, on the fame day that he received the firft news 
oi fo barbarous an affront. Now I fhall acquaint 



thee, that there enfued a treaty between them it 
Pifa, a city of Italy, in the dukedom of Tufcany, 
after the French troops had terrified them into a 
ftate-penitence. by the menacing approaches fhey 
mace Cowards the ecciefiaftical territories, through 
the principalities or Modena and Parma. Thefe 
two are friends to France, and their intereft makes 
them fo, in regard that Crown protects them from 
the Pope's oppreffion, who is always efteemed an ill 
neighbour by the Italian Princes, whofe dominions 
lie next to his. For this Roman Prelate is very po- 
tent and rich ; he would in a fhort time be Lord of 
all Europe in temporals as well as fpirituals, were 
he not curbed by the King of France and his allies. 

This makes all the little Sovereigns round about 
Rome Hand in awe of the Monarch who was born 
to command crowned heads. Wonder not at the 
expre.Tion, for, I tell thee fome of the greateit. 
Princes in Europe are his pensioners. This very 
quarrel with the Pope has gained the French King 
three Cardinals more than were his friends formerly. 

The conclufion of the treaty was, that the Pope 
fhould fend a Legate de Latere into France to paci- 
fy the King's wrath ; and that the militia or Roman 
guards, whom they call Sbirri and Corfes, mould 
be for ever abolimed, and a pyramid erected over- 
againfl their guard-houfe, with an infeription in 
Latin and French, declaring their crime and pu- 

This put the Court of France into a very jolly 
humour. They fell prefently to feafting ana revel- 
ling: ; and the King's next project was the conqueft 
©f Barbary. To this end, he fent the Duke of 
Beaufort with a fleet of great mips, to clear the feas 
of African Corfairs, that fo an army might be fafely 
tranfported from Toulon, and landed on the oppo- 
ste more. His defign in this was to reduce the in- 
habitants of thofe happy countries to the old idolatry 
of their forefathers, to plant there the Nazarene fu- 
peritition, and make himlelf the fole Lord and Pro- 
prietor of Africa. 

5 I cannot 


I cannot divine what fuccefs he will have in this 
great enterprife ; but it appears as if God were an- 
gry with the Muffili mans ; fuch continual loffes- 
they fuftain by land and fea. 

It is with no fmall grief I faw, not long ago, the 
French, who ferved in Hungary, this campaign, re- 
turn to Paris laden with thefpoils of True Believers. 
I cannot behold the very fcymetars and enfigns, 
which thefe Infidels took from the vanquifhed Of- 
mans, hang up in their temples, as trophies of their 
victory, without inexpreflible paflion and regret. It is 
faid here, that the Grand Signior has loft in Hunga- 
ry above thirty thoufand men this campaign ; where- 
of ten thoufand were killed in one battle, and a hun- 
dred and fifty colours taken, with iixteen cannon, 

Befides, thefe giafers grate my ears with another 
bravado, boafting, that one French fhip of war 
fought {even hours with three and thirty of the 
Grand Signior's gallies, funk five, fcattered the reft, 
and came off with a complete victory. 

It is a vaft advantage the French have in the fitu- 
ation of their country, in that it is wafhed on the 
South by the Mediterranean, on the North by the 
main fea : So that it is eafy for them to curb the 
greateit part of Europe on one fide, and fufficiently 
moleft the Levantines on the other. As for the Weft- 
em parts, this kingdom is their very, center, where 
all the lines of war, peace, commerce, and trafHck 
meet and terminate. She is to Chriflendom, wlpt 
Egypt and Sicily were in former ages to the empire 
of Old Rome, an inexhauftible granary. What- 
foever defirable things nature has frugally dropped 
here and there, in other regions, are found in this 
kingdom as in their original feminary. Corn is as 
plentiful as grafs, wine is almoft as cheap here, as 
water is with you in fome parts of Turky. The 
fens and lakes are covered with wild fowl. The 
meadows with fheep, deer, goats, and oxen. There 
is nothing fcarce but hens, eggs, and True Be- 
lievers, lhad almoft forgot their remarkable plen- 
ty of fait, the bare cuftom of which augments 

Vol. VI. I the 


the King's coffers with four millions of fequins 
«very year. 

France alfo abounds in hemp, a mofr. necerTary 
vegetable, whereof me not only makes all her own 
«ordage and fails, but alio furnifhes her neighbours, 
which brings in a confiderable revenue. There is 
an infinite plenty of fruits and trees for timber, of 
iron, marble, free-ftone, and all things neceflary 
for building (hips or houfes, for defence or offence 
by land or lea. Neither are there wanting mines of 
gold, firver, tin, lead, copper, and other metals, 
whereof men make the inftruments of war, and the 
entertainments of peace. In a word, this country 
is fo inriched with every thing, that fome hiftorians 
and philofophers have called it the parent of plenty, 
others the fountain of earthly blifs, the moft incom- 
parable region of this globe, the epitome of the 
world, or rather a little world itfelf. 

Serene Scribe, thou wilt not wonder at the uni- 
verfal fucceffes of the French arms, v/hen thou con- 
fiderefr. thefe things ; and that here the provinces 
are peopled like kingdoms ; the cities appear like 
whole provinces, for the multitude of inhabitants. 
To fay all in a word, the common character of France 
is the fame which philofophers give to nature, that 
there can be no vacuum found in it. 

Paris, 15th of the 12th Moon, 
pf the Year 1664. 


To Abdel Melcc Muli Omar, Pre (idem of 
the College of Sciences at Fez. 

PErmit me to rufh into thy prefence, venerable 
patron of philofophy, without the ufual for- 
malities of addrefs, or punctilio's of introduction, 
let me be admitted like a man with coals oi fire on 

h j( 


his head, as the cuftom is at the Imperial Porte, in 
urgent cafes ; For I am newly inflamed afiefh with 
Pythagorifm, Platoniiin, and Indianifm. 

Floods, fires, and other devaluations by war, fa- 
mine, pelli lence, earthquakes, and fuch-like con- 
tingencies, have either quite abolifhed the true and I 
primitive fdences of the firft ages, in moft parts of 
the earth ; or, at leaft, very much diminished and 
obfeured their original fplendor. 

1 he belt manufcripts are loft, unlefs the Indians 
have preferved them. Our fathers grew torpid, flu- 
pified and defperate, under the publick calamities 
which overwhelmed whole cities^ provinces, king- 
doms and empires. There was no encouragement 
for a fcribe or a man of letters to put himfelf to a 
needlefs toil in labouring to preferve the records 
which came from Heaven : Hiftories of the world 
invifible, celeftiai, perfect, and eternal ; traditions 
of undifctiverable antiquity; pandects replenished 
with bright oiental wifdom ; and fealed with the 
tetragrammaton, which, thou knoweft, is the fig- 
net of the firft and the laft ; even of the Divinity 
which comprehends all things, and is itfelf com- 
prehended of none. 

Had they gone about fuch a tàfk, they knew that 
fome ill fate or other would fwallow their writings, 
and bury them in eternal oblivion. Kence it is, 
that at this day we can hardly boaft of the footfteps 
of ancient knowledge, a few fragments and relick* 
x>f primitive learning Scattered up and down in di- 
vers authors, and much adulterated with the vain- 
opinions and errors of after- times. For every writer 
was either inclined or forced to flatter the age where- 
in he Jived, and not to oppofe their tenets. So that 
now there is fcarce any true philofophy extant on 
this fide the Ganges. 

How thofe Brachmans only had the happinefs to 
conferve fo facred a treafure can be no other way 
made out, than by their own cohftant tradition, 
that the deluge of Noah never reached thofe utmoft 
borders of the land towards the Eaft. And, per- 

I 2 haps, 


haps, the fame reafon may be given for the untrace- 
able chronologies of the Chinefe, their neighbours. 
Por, though they differ in the fentiments and rites 
of their religion, in their laws, cultoms, and man- 
ner of government, yet they both agree in affirming 
tTie world to be indeterminately old, putting a certain 
number of millions of years for an uncertain, far 
beyond it ; which is but a modeft retrenchment of 
their own thoughts, as if they were unwilling it 
fhould be falfely cenfured that they aimed at an hy- 

They fay, that the firft matter is co-eternal with 
God, as light is coeval with the fun ; produced alfo, 
and depending after the fame manner. For as the 
light diffufed through the air is not properly the fun, 
but an infeparable effect of it ; fo the univerfe is not 
God, but his production, ever fubfifting on him, 
and never to be divided from his eternal eiTence. 
And, for aught I fee, the molt fignificant language 
in the world has no other way to exprefs things of 
this abftrufe nature. They are too fublime for hu- 
man-thought ; much more do they tranfcend the 
power of fpeech. All the dialects on earth are too 
barren of words, and words too defective in fenfe, 
to defcribe the ineffable fecrets of eternity. 

As for the various ranks of beings, the infinite 
cliverfity of forms refulting from the firft matter, 
they think it reafonable to believe, that they were 
fuccefiively produced in time ; every one in its or- 
der, and according to its perfection. 

I tell thee it appears much more rational for me 
to believe this, than that the firft matter itfelf was 
produced out of nothing, about five or fix thoufand 
years ago, as the Jews and Chriftians feem to teach. 
Rather than ftarve my reafon with fo fliort an idea 
of the world's age, I would embrace the fentiments 
of Democritus and Epicurus, fuppofe an infinity 
of fpaces and worlds, an eternity of generations 
and corruptions, a continual change, not only of in- 
dividuals, but of the very fpecies of things, through 
the fatal concourfe and blending of atoms; Yet, 



not denying the unity of the divine efTence, nor un- 
dervaluing his providence all the while. For thefe 
things are, in my opinion, very compatible one 
with another. 

I do not pretend to be fingular, or fet up for a 
dogmatift. Neither am I ambitious of being efteemed 
a wit, by venting notions above the reach of vulgar 
capacities. It is only the pure love of truth, which 
encourages me to take this liberty with thee, who, in 
matters of philofophy, art the only Mafter of the age. 

To thee, therefore, I fubmit all my fentiments, 
as to an oracle ; defiring thy impartial anfwer, and 
couching the faculties of my foul, in the moft hum- 
ble attachment to thy venerable wifdom, I become 
mute as a mummy. 

Paris, 30th of the iath Moon, 
of the Year 1664. 


To Mirmadolin, Santone of the Vale of Sidon, 

WH A T is this world, that on all fides invades 
our fenfes ? This earth under our feet ; thofe 
clouds whirling over our heads ; thefe winds making 
the. trees ; that azure fky, with all its glittering or- 
naments ? What is all this but an eternal dream ; 
a mere fhadow of God Almighty's thoughts ? It is 
pleafant living in it; it is alfo painful. In his fenfe, 
this univerfe is perfectly good ; in ours, it is mixed 
with evil. He made it for his own diverfion, and 
our fcrutiny. It is to us a field of riddles and con- 
tradictions. In fummer we curfe the heat, and in 
winter blafpheme the cold. Yet we blefs both the 
one and the other when we feel them in due meafure 
and feafon. One hour this colour pleafes the eye, 
another that ; and, perhaps, in the next, it is dif- 
gufted at them both. We never find reft or content 
I 3 in 


in any thing. The foftefc. mufic at fome times 
grates our ears like the croaking of toads. The moft 
agreeable odours are, as the fmell of a fepulchre, 
loathfome and abominable. The moft delectable 
wines and favoury meats, at fuch feafons, are unpa- 
latable as the beverage and diet of hell. Neither can 
the more insinuating charms of women put us into 
a better humour. All the whole fyftern of nature, 
joined together is not fufficient to afford us eafe. 
Nothing but a ray from the Omnipotent can alle- 
viate our melancholy, or give us a tafte of ourfelves. 
Por we are the very Deity Scattered in fragments ; or 
we are feparated drops of the divine elTence ; volatile 
fpirits of eternity ;. by fate or chance fixed in proper 
vehicles of time and matter. O Santone ! This 
whole corporeal univerfe is but a web fpun from the 
bowels of an infinite God., and wrought with inimi- 
table artifice to catch immaterial forms, ideas, and 
fouls in, which are the genuine offspring of the 
eternal mind. We mortals of human race are but 
fo many parcels of the Divinity in difguife, tre- 
panned into bodies by certain hidden baits, mag- 
nets, and cfrarms,. lurking in embryo's with which 
•we have fome fympathy. We are all gods m maf- 
querade. So are the beads of the field, the birds of 
the air, and the fifh of the fea. 

Let us not therefore condemn the antique cere- 
monies of the Gentile religion, which taught men 
to adore the fun, moon, and If ars, the elements, 
and all that is within their circumference, efpecially 
the fouls of departed heroes, demi-gods, nymph 5 -, 
and the reft of thofe beings, which are the deleft 
progeny of eternal nature. For, in fo doing, they 
did but build altars to the original fountain of the' 
univerfe. Since God is in the winds, in the rain, 
in the thunder, lightning, hail, and other meteors ; 
in the heavens and air, fun, moon, and ftars ; in 
the fire, earth, and water ; in plants and animals ; 
finally, fince he is in the elements and every thing 
compounded of them ; he is not only in them, but 
is thefe very things by an ineffable production of 


' A SPY AT PARIS. 175 

hlmfelf. And, when the final confummation fhall 
come, it will be but a withdrawing all the extended 
lines of his infinity into their center, where thou 
and I, and every divided atom in nature, fhall meet r 
be united and fwallowed up in eternal beatitude. 
Amen ! Amen ! Oh thou Lord and Father of all 
things, inexhauftible abyls of miracles which know 
no end. 

Pms. 6th of the i ft Moon, 
of the Year 1665. 

To the fame. 

SUppofing it were otherwif; than I have faid ^ 
Grant the docirine of Epicurus true. Believe 
that we and all things were produced by the for- 
tuitous concourfe of atoms : Yet itili we have the 
fame, or greater reafon, to value ourfelves as di- 
minutive gods, fi nee in this fenfe we muir of necef- 
fity be eternal, every atom being fo, of which we are 
compounded. In the opinion of thefe phtfofophers, 
there is no fuch thing as an origin or beginning of 
the univerfe : Each particle of matter, with them, is 
as old as the Divinity. We have all ranged eternal- 
ly from one form and world to another ; danced to 
the meafures of fate ; been parts of the orbs above, 
and of the caverns below ; (frayed through the hea- 
vens and all the elements, taken an universal career 
through infinite and cndlefs fpace, and are now (as- 
fixed as we feem in thefe folid hulks of flefnj in the 
fome hurly-burly as ever. 

Thefe bodies which we carry about us are not 
compounded of the fame atoms as they were feVen 
years ago. There is a perpetual flux and remix of 
particles. We die as faffc as we live. Every mo- 
ment fubtraòls from our duration on earth, as much. 
I 4 as 


as it adds to it. We move, breathe, and do all 
things by paradox. Our very eflence is a riddle. 

With an open heart, therefore, I applaud thy re- 
ligious negligence of human affairs,' in that thou 
art divinely carelefs of thyfelf and every thing elfe, 
lave only to conferve thy innocence. 

What fignifies it whether we believe the written 
law or the Alcoran ; whether we are difciples of 
Mofes, Jefus, or Mahomet ; followers of Ariftotle, 
Plato, Pythagoras, Epicurus, or Ilch Rend Hu, the 
Indian Brachman r* Or what import is it, whether 
we pray or not? Whether we kneel before images or 
in a naked mofqucj? It will be all one in the winding 
\ip. We are but the machines of chance. As we 
live, fo mail we die -, and God knows what will 
become of us afterwards ; neither is it worth our 
while to be follicitous, fince we can be certain of 
nothing. Perhaps, every atom of which we are 
made may be fcattered from the reft ; we may be 
tranfported piecemeal into ten hundred thoufand 
millions of worlds ; and feven-fold as many years 
may expire, before two the minuteft particles of our 
frame meet together again. We need not to be 
troubled at all this : Nothing can hinder us from 
being immortal and eternal, though it be but in 

Go on then, facred vagabond, pious rambler, ho- 
ly fugitive; go on, to afiert, in the courfe of thy 
life, this great truth, ' That all things depend on 
4 everlafting chance or deftiny.' Thy actions fhall 
reprove the hypocrites of the age, who abound in 
fpecious words. And thy divine indifference {hall 
condemn the hellifh zeal of furious bigots, who 
think to pleafe God and atone for their fins, by fa- 
criflcing human blood, and mafiacring all that are 
not of their faith. 

God, or chance, or fate, fhall tranfport thee, 
after death, to happy regions, immarceffible joys, 
and an endlefs fucceflion of blifs. Every atom 
fhall find its Paradife. Thou fhalt mount, by de- 


grees v to full, infinite, and eternal felicity. Adieu, 
tor a time. 

Paris, aoth of the ift Moon, 
of the Year 1665. 


Tolfouf, hisCouiìn, a Merchant, at Aliracanv 

WHEN I reflect, on thy happinefs, in having 
been all thy life at liberty to change thy re- 
fidence and ramble whitherfcever thy fancy invited 
thee ; and that, even now at Aftracan, thou art no 
longer confined, than by thy own pleafure or inte- 
reft : I cannot forbear envying thee. 

There is an inexpreiTible delight in ranging the 
various tracts of the earth. Whereas to be perpetu- 
ally fhut up and imprifoned, as I am, in a city fo 
clofe and high-built that the very winds can fcarce 
find way into her interior parts, is a perfect hell up- 
on earth. 

To fpeak the truth, Paris may be called a heap ' 
or aggregate of cities, built one upon another, like 
Pelion upon Olia, fince the houfes here are as high 
as the minarets at Conflantinople, and divided li Ice 
the air into the lower, middle, and upper regions or 
apartments ; or rather like the heavens, whole num- 
ber aftronomers affert to be nine. For with fo 
many ftories do fome houfes, nay, whole itreets in 
Paris, lift up their heads ; and every itory or apart- 
ment is peopled like a bee-hive.. So that in this in- 
finite throng of inhabitants,, and fuch as come hi- 
ther about bufinefs, we are ready to be ilifled with 
one another's breath : Whereas, thou knoweit, in 
the cities all over the E aft, the houfes are intermix- 
ed with gardens : They are low-built, with terrafTes 
on the top, to take the cool air on by night, with 
parterres, kafEaneys, divans, confervatories, . and 
I.5 all' 


all the other conveniencies for refrefhing the fenfes, 
by water, wind, and odoriferous fmells. 

This makes me long to be at Conftantinople, Da- 
mascus, Moful, or even at Aftracan, where thou 
rdldeft, though that city wants many delights which 
the others enjoy. However, I mould there encoun- 
ter with tiara's and turbands, the very fight of which 
would half cure my difcontent. May my portion 
be with Tagot, if 1 am not tired with feeing no- 
thing but thefe hats and fhort coats, thefe ridiculous 
Franks, thefe apes without tails. And then to hear 
them rant againft the Grand Signior and all the 
True Believers ; to hear them blafpheme the Mef- 
fenger of God, curfe the Alcoran, revile the Muf- 
ti and all the Mollahs, with a thoufand other im- 
pertinences, which none but fuch reprobates, giaurs, 
and Infidels, would be guilty of; make me either 
wifh myfelf deaf, or that my tongue were at liberty 
to anfvver them. But much rather would I defire 
to be in a place where I might enjoy my ears, to 
receive the falem from my friends that are Muflul- 
mans, and to- hear the name of God devoutly blef- 
{cd, on any occafion that awakens the fenfe to 

Oh that I were among my countrymen, the Ara- 
bians, who dwell in tents, and frolic k about, from 
hills to rallies, tailing by turns the various fweets 
of the forcft and the plain. The groves and mea- 
dows, paf-Lurts and arable grounds, cities and vil- 
lages, all contribute to their delights. They want 
no innocent joy that the earth can afford. Their 
wealth confifts in the multitude of their fheep, ca- 
mels, goats, and oxen. And for them is all their 
care, that they may not want grafs and water in due 
feafon. As for themfelves, they are rehgned to Pro- 

So are the Tartars, who fleep in hords or wag- 
gons, the only cavaliers of Afia : Whofe life is a 
perpetual campaign, from the cradle to the grave : 
Their labour and eafe are derived from the fame 
fountain; exercifmg themfelves on horfeback, at 



feven years old ; and feeding on the milk of mares, 
as foon as they are weaned from their mothers 
breaifo. Toil and recreation, with them, are one 
and the fame thing, fince they know no other plea- 
fure but what coniifts in riding, fighting, and con- 
quering ; or elfe in death, which, theyibelieve, trans- 
lates them to new joys, and thofe more poignant 
than they knew before. Therefore they bravely 
court it at the point of a fword, or the mouth of a 
cannon ; nothing being more fcandalous or hateful 
than a coward among them. 

I proteft, the very idea of Pal us Mceotis, and 
Taurica Cherfonefus, with the reft of thofe hor- 
rible fens and marfhes on the North of the Black 
Sea, which incompafs the dominions of the Tar- 
tars, affects me with a pafilon, or rather fuch a med- 
ley of paflions, as I know not how to name. Thole 
ample defarts, thefe untracked folitudes, appear to 
my imagination like the limits of this old habitable 
world ; and the frontiers of feme new, ftrange, and 
unknown regions ■> fome terra incognita, where an 
univerfal diiiolution and filence keep their feats for 
ever : Where no voices are heard but thofe of un- 
couth fatyrs, fauns, and other exotick tenants of 
the woods and moors. No other found but the 
whiftling and roaring of the winds. No profpedfc 
but that of trees, which have appeared from the in- 
fancy of time ; and, where thofe are wanting, the 
eye is wearied in a long, endlefs wafte, which no- 
thing feems to bound but the declining arch of 
diftant fkies, or low, black, melancholy clouds, 
fkirted with miils and fogs, eternal mantles of the 
Northern climes. 

This is the figure of thofe folitary tracks where I 
would chufe to live, rather than in a city which fti- 
fies me with too much plenty of every thing but 
frefb air and honeft people. 

Ifouf, the contrarieties which we find in earthly 
things give a guft to each other ; and the moil mag- 
nificent palace would feem a prifon, were a man al- 
ways confined to live in it. 

I 6 Co ufi n* 


Coufin, I wifh thee perpetual liberty and hap- 

Paris, 7th of the act Moon, 
of die Year 1665» 


To Hamet, Reis Effendi, Principal Secretary 
of the Ottoman Empire. 

AMIDST the variety of obligations which I 
have to difcharge, I forget not to obey thy 
commands. I have already, in my former dif- 
patches, acquainted thee with the characters and 
fome remarkable pafTages of Henry IV, Lewis XIII, 
Lewis XIV, Cardinal Richlieu, Cardinal Maza- 
rine, and the Prince of Conde. Now I will fay 
fomething of the Marmai de Turenne, whofe fame 
reaches wherever the French wars have been talked 
cf for thefe forty years. The name of this great 
General is Henry de la Tour d' Auvergne, fon to 
he Duke of Bouillon. 

When his father was near his death, he called for 
both his fons, whereof this was the youngeft. And, 
among other exhortations, he recommended, in a 
fpecial manner, three things to their practice : Ne- 
ver to renounce or change their religion : Never to- 
take up arms againfr. their Sovereign : Nor to pro- 
voke the nrft Minifter. 

As to the fuft, the Marinai de Turenne, lias hi- 
therto kept inviolably ; but he has faultered in. both 
the other, having revolted from his Matter's fenice 
during his minority, and oppofed the intereft of 
Cardinal Mazarine, when the Parliament perfecuted 
that Miniirer. 

However, this hinders not but that he is a great 
Soldier; and, befides, he is fince reconciled to the 
King. He feems to be born fot martial affairs. 


a spy at paris; iSi 

And they relate of him, that, when he was but ten 
years old, and his Governor, miffing him, had fought 
up and down every- where for him, he at length 
found him afleep on a cannon, which he feemed to 
embrace, with his little arms, as far as they could 
reach. And, when afked, Why hechofe fuchacouch 
to lie on, he made anfwer, 6 that he defigned to 

* have fiept there all night, to convince his father 
4 that he was hardy enough to undergo the fatigues 

* of war, though the old Duke had often perfuaded 

* him to the contrary.' And, to fpeak the truth, no» 
man was more carelefs of his body than this Prince. 

At fourteen years of age, he was fent into Hol- 
land, to ferve in the army under the Prince of O- 
range, who was his uncle. There he applied him- 
felf to all the difcipline of war, doing the duty of a. 
private foldier : Which is the common way that 
cadets, or younger brothers, take to rife to the moft 
eminent offices. Pie was equally forward in labours 
and perils, never munning any fat?gue or hazard, 
which might bring him glory ; yet he was not rafh, 
the common vice of youth ; but tempered all his ac- 
tions with an extraordinary prudence, and folidity. 
of judgment, beyond what was expected from him. 
at thefe years. Yet, on the other hand, his coun- 
fels were not flow and phlegmatick, being of a very 
ready forecaft : And he feldom failed in his contri- 
vances. He was foon promoted to a place of com- 
mand, and the exacinefs of his conduci: fcon raifed 
him a vail: reputation ; fo that, by degrees, he at lalt 
arrived to that height of power and honour he now 
polfefTes. He appears indefatigable in his body, and 
of an invincible refolution. He hates flatterers that 
think to gain his friendship by praifing him ; and is 
equally averfe from making ufe of fuch fawning in- 
fm nations to others-, though the greater.- Princes of 
the blood, or the firft Mi ni Iter himfeif. 

He has alfo a certain ltedfaftnefs of fpirit which 
cannot be warped by any artificial addi'elfes, though 
made to his own apparent advantage, if they pro- 
poie to him any thing that has the leaft femblance 



of what is bafe and difhonourable. Thus he wetdd 
never confent that the honour of taking Dunkirk, 
fome years ago, fhould be afcribed to Cardinal Ma- 
zarine, though that Miniiter privately courted him 
to it, offering him the greateit commands in the 
kingdom, if he would do him that fervice ; and the 
Marinai knew it might prove his ruin, if he did not. 
Yet fuch was his integrity and love to the truth, that 
by no means would he be brought to condefcend to 
this meannefs of fpirit ; yet, perhaps, it might on- 
ly proceed from the averiion which in thofe days he 
had for the Cardinal. Many times it is evident, 
that a natural pamon is made to pafs for a moral 
virtue. Befides, perhaps, he was unwilling to be 
deprived of the glory due to him for that important 

He is a man of few words, and fo fecret in all his 
eounfels, that nobody knows any thing of his de- 
li gns, till he puts them in execution. Every man 
efteems him the moft liberal Prince of this age, ha- 
ving no other regard for money than as it ferves the 
neceilities of his family, and inables him to oblige 
his friends. 

In a word, whatever vices he may have, he is yet 
endued with fo many good qualities and virtues, that 
he is beloved by all the nation, and in particular fa- 
vour with his Sovereign, who treats him, not as a 
fubject, but as one of his molt intimate friends. 

May God, who has raifed up this great genius 
to aggrandife the French monarchy, continually 
fupply the Grand Signior with valiant and expert 
Generals, that the empire of the faithful Ofmans 
may incre:.fe like the moon, but never be in its 
wane till that planet mail no more appear in the 
heavens, and the fattening of the elements fhall be 

Paris, 1 2th of the id Mood, 
df the Year 1665. 




To Orchan Cabet, Student in the Sciences* 
and Penfioner to the Grand Signior. 

TH E French King has lately This letter was 
received a grofs affront from written originally 
the poets. They have often been m Sclavonic*, 
fatirical upon his loves, and now they begin to bur- 
lefque upon his money. A day or two ago, when 
he was newly rifen out of his bed, he found, on 
a table in his chamber, a paper containing thefe 
verfes : 

Tu es IfTue de Race Augufte, 

Ton Ayeul eft Henry le Grand, 

Et ton Pere Louis le Jufte -, 

Pour Toy, tu n' es qu' un Louis d' Argent. 

Thou knoweft where the force of the poet's wit 
lies, having travelled in France, and learned their 
language. The King fmiled at the reading of it, 
and feemed to be pleated v/ith the franknefs of the 
author, faying, ' He was worth a thoufand flatter- 
c ers. J He promifed, likewife, to give him five 
hundred louis's for bis wit, if he would difcover 
himfelfj as al fo to pardon him on his royal word. 
But the fatirift v/ould not venture himfelf, knowing 
that Kings have more ways than one to revenge 
themfelves of private perfcns, their fubjects. Flow- 
ever, fince the King appeared fo well pleafed v/ith 
this, he was refolved to give him another touch of 
his fkill, and the very next morning, in the fame 
place,, the King found thefe words : 

Tu ne le fcaura pas, Louis, 
Car j' etois feul quand je le iis, 

There have been many conjectures made about the 
author of thefe lampoons. Some fay one thing, and 



fome another. And there are not wanting fuch as 
fatten it on a virgin of Cologn, now refiding at the 
Court: Her name" is Anna Maria de Skunnan. She 

is very learned, and fpeaks Arabick, Latin, Turkifn, 
Greek, Italian, French, and Spanifh, as fluently 
as her native dialect. She is of a fine wit, and 
piercing judgment in the controverfies of philofo- 
phy and religion. 

There are leverai epiftles cf her's in print, fome 
penned in Latin, others in French, addrefled to the 
Quee::- mother, Cardinal Richlieu, Cardinal Ma- 
zarine, and others ; befides a book of poems, mon: 
of them fatires. And it is this laft gives the world 
fuch a jealoufy of her writing the lines which were 
found on the King's table. For the criticks have 
compared them with her ftyle and find a very near 
refemblance between them. 

But, let who will be the author, I think the 
French King is wronged, in the character they give 
him. For, though he has heaped up great quanti- 
ties of gold and filver to carry on his vaft defigns, 
yet he is no miier, being very liberal to perfons of 

I fend thee this for thy diverfion, and in order to 
our future correfpondence. Take it for an example, 
and be as familiar with me, remembering the old. 
Latin proverb, ' Manus manum fricat.' 

Pais, nth of die 6th Moon, 
of the Year 1665. 


To the Captain Baila. 

MAY thy heart be ch earful, and thy voyage 
crowned withfuccefs, wherever thou fai left, 
noble, old tarpaulin, and favourite of the God of 
the fea. The empire of the Ottomans has not had fo 



brave a Commander of the navy thefe thirty years. 
God grant thee good fortune againft the Infidels, 
whether on the white or black leas. Thou art al- 
ready famous for thy exploits on the latter, in above 
twenty engagements with the CofTacks, Circaffians, 
and the reft of thofe thievifh countries. But no- 
thing has raifed thy character fo high as the laft com- 
bat thou hadftwith Pachicour, the renowned pirate 
of thofe parts, who threatened not only his Chrif- 
tian neighbours, but alfo the Ottoman empire, with 
infinite ravages. 

But thou haft ftemmed the tide of glory, hum- 
bled the maritime people, his confederates ; and by 
that means made thyfelf a way into the Archipelago 
and Mediterranean, where thou rideft, as another 
Neptune, King of the waters. 

Take not this for flattery; for I tell thee I have 
not faid fo much to a Bafia of the fea, thefe feven- 
and-twenty years. Neither indeed had I any rea- 
fon. He that merited the moft applaufe, in all that 
time, was the brave Zornefan Muftapha. And I 
addrefTed no more to him than his due. Fortune did 
not favour him, or elfe he had done great things. 
As for the reft, they were generally men never bred 
to fea affairs, but minions of the Court, or bullies 
of the city, who were better at making a noife than 
at any action of hazard or importance. And there 
were fome bold renegadoes, but they played faft and 
loofe, and nobody knew where to have them. 

Treachery infects the whole world ; but in thefe 
Weftern parts it reigns in its center. Here is no- 
thing but undermining and ambufhes : One State 
trepanning another out of their guards, and then 
they play their own game. 

m It would be endlefs to acquaint thee with the ori- 
ginal of the quarrel between the Er^glifh and the 
Dutch. Let it be enough for thee to know, that 
thefe people are at odds now : And, in regard the 
ftrength of both nations lies in their fhipping, they 
are preparing to cover the Northern feas with na- 
vies j but the iflanders flill get the befi of it> They 



daim the fovereignty of thcfe Teas, and, in my opi- 
nion, they deferve it. I fpeak according to my in- 
telligence, being aiTured that no nation ever pre- 
vailed again It. them on that element. 

They have had a terrible right this fummer r 
wherein the Dutch loll feventeen fhips of war, be- 
fides veffels of fmaller note. The Commander of 
the Englifh fleet is called the Duke of York, a great 
General, and brother to the Engliih King. His 
name was famous in France and Flanders during 
the Spanifh war. And, though the land, afforded 
him no farther occailons of glory, yet he has found 
fome in the fea. Opdam, the greatefl Admiral that 
ever the Dutch could boall of, fell a facrifice to his 

I am the more particular in the relation, becaufe 
it is fit thou fhouldefl know the character of all the 
brave heroes living. 

Since this fight the King of France has Cent an 
Ambaffador to the Englifh Court to mediate a peace. 
What iffue his negociation will have is of no great 
import to us who ferve the Grand Signior, fole 
Lord of the four feas : But I will tell thee fome- 
thing, which it concerns thee to know. 

The King of France is going to cut a canal thro' 
part of his kingdom, by which the Mediterranean 
may be joined to the main fea. This is a vaft de- 
figrr, and much difcourfed of in Europe, being a 
parallel to what has been formerly attempted by 
fome Kings of Egypt and Emperors of Rome, to 
join the Mediterranean and Red feas together, for 
the fake of an eafier traffick to the Eafl-Indies. 

Thou oughtell alfo to be informed of the Duke of 
Beaufort's exploits on the coafl of Barbary. He is 
Commander of the French navy in thole feas, and 
has done great injury to the people of Algiers, Sar- 
celle, Bougie, and other ports. 

Though thefe rebels are defervedly punifhed for 
deferting the protection of the high Porte, yet let us 
remember that the Algerine^ aie'Mufiulmans, and, 



therefore, ought not to be abandoned to the malice 
of the Infidels. 

Mighty Bada, fail thou in the ftrength of God, 
againit the enemies of the Ottoman empire. And, 
when thou haft finished thy voyage here below, may 
a \\ ind of mercy waft thee over the waters which are 
above the firmament, and land thee fafe in one of 
the ports of Paradife. 

Pan's, 3d of the 9th Moon>. 
«;' the Year 16 6^, 

The End of the Third Book.,' 






To Achmet, Beig. 

THIS Court has put on the exterior fern- 
blance of mourning, whilft they inwardly re- 
joice at the death of Philip IV, King of Spain. He 
deceafed on the 17th of the 9th moon. It is pofft- 
ble their grief is more real for the death of the Duke 
of Vendofme, a Prince of royal extraction, and, 
whilft living, not far from a pofHbility of inheriting 
the Crown of France. . But now he is gone to the 
grave, the general receptacle of all mortals, and 
which makes no diftinciion between the noble and 
the vulgar. 

There have been abundance of ceremonies per- 
formed on the part of the King, the Dauphin, the 
Duke of Orleans, the Duke of Valois, and other 
Princes of the blood, for the health of the departed 
foul. For the Nazarenes, to give them their due. 

LETTERS WRIT BY, kc. ig 9 

fall not fhort of the True Faithfu lin believing the 
refurrection and immortality to come. They con- 
fign the bodies of the dead to their fepulchres with 
folemn rites of religion, perfuming them with in- 
cenfe, and fprinkiing them with holy water; re- 
hearfing alio certain facred hymns and prayers ap- 
pointed for that purpofe. Neither do they neglect 
to faft and give alms, to perform any pious office 
which is pradtifed by the MufTuImans, for their 
friends who are gone to the invifible frate. They 
agree with us in abundance of good things, and, if 
they mix fome fuperftition and errors, let us pity 
their weaknefs, and praife God, who guides us in- 
to the right way, and fuffers us not to be feduced in- 
to the way of Infidels. He is the merciful of the 
merciful, the joy of the elect, and the hope of all 
nations. Should he punifh men according to their 
hourly demerits, the earth would foon be depopu- 
lated, and void of any other inhabitants except the 
beafts. But he knows cur mould, and remembers 
that we are no more than mere froth or fpume of the 
elements, and that in a very little time, by the 
courfe of nature, we fhall vaniih like bubbles, which 
yield to every blait of wind. Therefore he fpares 
us, and connives at our infirmities, becaufe he is 
the lover of fouls. 

I fpeak this as an incentive to chanty among our- 
felves, and to our fellow-mortals. It feems to me 
unreafonable that we mould purfue, with inexorable 
hatred, all the followers of Jefus. He was a holy 
Prophet, humble, mild, chafte, and harmlefs. He 
did many good works himfelf, and commanded his 
difciples to imitate his example. He rebuked thofe 
among them that would have called down fire from 
heaven to confume his enemies : Injoining them to 
return bleffings for curfes, prayers for blafphemies, 
and good for evil. There are thofe among them 
who obeyed his precepts : As for the wicked, I am 
not their advocate. If the greateftpartofthe Chrif- 
tians live contrary to the laws of the Meffias, let us 
coniider alfo how many hypocrites, libertines, he- 



reticles, and atheifts there are among thofe who pro- 
refs the Muffiilman faith. Doubtleis, there are good 
and bad of all religions. And it is impofRble to 
find an afTembly of juft men without a mixture of 

As for our differences with the people of Jefus, 
in matters of worfhip, it ought not to make us for- 
_get that we are men, compounded of the fame flefh 
and blood as they. And, for aught we know, God, 
who made all the nations of the earth, may accept 
of their various rites and ceremonies, in paying him 
divine adoration. 

We, that are the pofterity of Ifmael, and worfhip 
the Eternal after the manner of our fathers, who 
followed the pattern of Ibrahim the Beloved of God, 
cannot deny but that the law of Mofes was of divine 
original : And yet it contains precepts and injunc- 
tions to which we are wholly itrangers in our prac- 
tice ; though the Jews, who are the defcendants of 
Jacob, obey them to this day. 

So we believe what the Alcoran fays of the Mef- 
fias, that he is the breath and word of God ; that 
he healed difeafes, raifed the dead, wrought many 
other miracles, and preached the true heavenly doc- 
trine. Yet there is abundance of difference between 
the ceremonies which the very apofrles ufed in the 
fervice of God, and the worfhip eftablifhed by Ma- 
homet, our holy Lawgiver. But he tells us, that 
they who live up to the law of Jefus fhall go to Pa- 
radife, as well as the MufTulmans. 

The greateft. fcandal which the Chriflians give 
us is their fetting up pictures and images in their 
temples, and the reverence they pay to thofe infen- 
fible pieces of human art. And yet, for aught we 
know, they may be excufeable before God, fince 
they profefs openly, in the publick decrees of their 
councils, that the veneration and honour they pay 
to the figures of faints and angels is only relative ; 
their devotion, at the fame time, retting not on this 
fide the prototypes. 


A SPY AT PARIS, i 9 t 

If this be true, I fee no more hurt in their wor- 
ihip of images, than in bowing and proftrating be- 
fore the Alcoran, which is but another fort of ima- 
gery, reprefenting the divine will. 

In a word, if the hieroglyphicks of the ancient 
Egyptians are allowed to be lawful letters and in- 
struments, to exprefs the inward conceptions of the 
mind ; In my opinion, the painting and fculpture, 
•which we fee in the churches of theChriftians, ought 
not to be condemned, as an eafier way to convey the 
hiftory of Jefus, and the reft of the prophets and 
iaints to the vulgar, who are generally ignorant of 
letters ; unlefs we mail fay, that the fon of Mary 
was an idol, and the prophets and faints were de- 
vils, which God avert from the mouth of a True 

Paris, 13th of the nth Moon, 
of the Year 1665. 


To William Vofpel, a Reclufc cf Auftria. 

THY difpatch came to my hands in a good 
hour. I perufed with reverence the paternal 
inftruótions it contained; the grave and judicious 
apophthegms-; the facred rules and inftructions of 
a regular and fpi ritual life ; the morals more refined 
than thofe of Pindar, Epicletus, Seneca, or Cato. 
But pardon me if I relifn not fo well the panegyrick 
on fome of the newly canon ifed faints ; from which 
you take occasion to extol the Pope's infallibility, 
and to-exclude from falvatron all that are not with- 
in the pale of the Roman church. 

I am a Chriftian and Catholick as well as you. I 
honour the spoftles and martyrs, with all the pri- 
mitive faints, confeflbrs, and holy doctors of the 
church. But I can never be perfuaded, that a man, 
5 for 


for being a murderer, traitor, an inventor of cruel 
devices, or a learned fycophant, can merit heaven, 
though he may be ranked in the red lines of the ca- 
lendar. Much lefs can I believe, that all men fhall 
be damned who are not in communion with the Bi- 
fhop of Rome. Certainly the Catholick or univer- 
fal Church is not fhut up within the narrow con- 
fines of the mattered Roman empire. Confider 
Greece, Armenia, Egypt, Mufcovy, Ethiopia, and 
all the fpacious territories of Europe and the Eaft. 
How many millions daily fay their Paternoster, and 
pray in Jefus's name, yet never paid obedience to 
any but their own Patriarchs and Bifhops ? Were 
not all the apoftles equally in commiffion ? Were 
not the churches they founded and eftablifhed 
equally holy and orthodox ? Where then com- 
menced the mighty fchifm, but in the morofe pride 
of Victor, who (for the fake of pafchal niceties) 
affronted all the churches in the world, and was, 
for that reafon, feverely reproved by a French Bi- 
fhop oi his own obedience ; befides the reprimand of 
Polycarp, and other Prelates of the Eaft? What not 
St. John the Beloved, that refted his head with di- 
vine honour on the breaft of Chrift, as privy to the 
laws of his Mailer, as Peter, Paul, or any other 
abortive apoftle? Remember the firft General Coun- 
cil at Jerufalem, where James, the brother of our 
Lord fat Prefident, decreeing abftinences exactly 
oppofite to the prefent faith and practice. And be- 
lieve, at the fame time, that it was imperial vani- 
ty and pride which firft begot the fatal feparation. 
Herefy was but the baftard of the apoftolick canons, 
cherimed and too much countenanced by Conftan- 
tine and his fucceffors, till the fatal time of Phocas, 
whole untimely death made all things ready for the 
intended ufurpation. Oh Guicciardine ! how tru- 
ly haft thou written the fiate of modern Rome ! 
Worthy as Horace of eternal honour. Thy faith- 
ful profe equals his courtly verfe, and merits new 
Auguftus's to patronife it. 



Believe me, Father William, I have no fpite or 
enmity againft the Roman High-Pricft. I reverence 
him equally with his brethren the Patriarchs of 
Constantinople, Jerufalem, Alexandria, and An- 
tioch. I would go beyond this, for the fake of con- 
formity to ancient cuitoms, and in obedience to the 
celebrated Council of Nice: I would willingly ac- 
knowledge him the Primate of the world. Let him 
have the firft place in God's name among the Pa- 
triarchs of the univerfal church. But let him not 
ride on the necks of his equals. Let him not pre- 
tend a power to cancel the apoftolick canons ; tra- 
verfe the traditions of the Fathers, repeal the decrees 
of General Councils, difpenfe with the laws of na- 
ture, grace, reafon, morality, and the very inftftu- 
tions of his predecellbrs, men, without quefiion, 
as infallible as he. This is not the way to make 
profelytes to the Roman faith, unlefs it be of fools 
or knaves. The world has received new lights, Fa- 
ther William, and men begin to hifs religious ban- 
tering off the ftage. Nay, even they who arc mod 
guilty of it, I mean the Roman Courtiers, Cardi- 
nals, and Priefts, cannot forbear laugh i tig at the 
folly and credulous eaimefs of thofe to whom they 
impofe their pious frauds. The bigotted laity are by 
them efteemed no better than filly affes, tamely 
couching under the burdens of their ecclefiaftical 
Lords and drivers. 

Therefore, it is time for thee to open thy eyes, 
lift up thy head, and lay afide monaftick fimplicity : 
I do not counfel thee to turn libertine, cr imitate 
the Italian gallantry, which has taught the Priefts, 
inftead of facred continence, to fquint a benediction 
on fome charming Lady, from the altar, in the name 
of Dominus Vobifcum, or Surfum Corda; even 
whilft they are preparing for divine revels, to ban- 
quet on the flefn and 'blood of God, Oh! moft- 
ftrous perfidy and execrable prophanenefs ! Nor, 
if thou art affronted and revengeful, would I ad- 
vife thee to time the execution of thy wrath like the 
-Sicilian vefpers, and make the bells become the ék- 

Vol. VI. K rads 


•nais of thy cruelty, which ought, and were design- 
ed and confecrated on purpofe to drill on harmlefs 
fouls to church, with their dull, fieepy, jangling 
chimes ; and with their more triumphant, lofty mu- 
jick, on the feitivals of the faints, to make devouter 
Clinicians dream they are going to heaven inftead of 
a mafiacre. I would not have thee hope to merit 
Paradife, by fending t'iither, in obedience to the 
Pepe, or General of thy order, the majeftick fouls 
of Kings or Emperors, in vehicles of fac red poi fon, 
or invenomed euchariils. Believe that thofe Pre- 
lates, priefts, or monks, who are thus divinely pro T 
phane and mercifully cruel, fhall become mitred, 
veiled, cowled monfters, in the fierceft and moil 
violently glowing dens of hell ; there with the moie 
exalted arienicks, mercuries, and whatfoever gives 
the higheit pains, to languifn, pine, and rack away 
ten thoufand, thouiand, thouiand ages, in penances 
of flow effect, which expiate, but very late, the 
crying fins of guilty murderers and bloody hypo- 

Yet fuch as thefe, fince modern times, are the 
only men thought worthy to be canonifed for faints ; 
which made a certain honeif. Cardinal cry out, in 
the prefence of the Pope, ' Thefe new faints force 
* me to doubt the old ones,' 

Father William, the fame thought begins and 
ends my letter. Yours was upon the ftretch, ex- 
tolling far too high the largenefs of the Roman 
church, the infallible power of Popes, the miracles 
of thefe new faints. And I, for my part, am a man 
abhorring bigotry. I cannot believe things contra- 
ry to my reafon. I wifh the differences of man- 
kind, in point of religion, were rationally compofed, 
and that the good of all fecis, factions, . parties, 
churches, and communions were united in this life, 
as they fureiy will be in the next. 

In the mean time, to the Father without begin- 
ning *, to the Son without a younger brother ; to 
the Holy Ghoff , the firir and the laft ; to the Vir- 
gin Mary, the Mother of the intire Deity, I recom- 


mend thoe and all good Chriftians ; hoping to fee 
you in heaven, though we cannot, it feems, think 
alike on earth. 

Paris, ift of the 1 2th Moon, 
of the Year 1665. 


To Nathan Ben Saddi, a Jew, at Vienna. 

According to thy defire, I have procured, and 
fent thee the Alcoran, and other writings of 
our holy Doctors ; books which will conduci: thee 
into the right way. Thou wilt find, in thefe vo- 
lumes, a fpirit of life and power. There breathes 
in them a certain vital principle of /reafon ; (o that 
whofoever will read them attentively may feel, if 
I may fo fpeak, the very pulfe of intellectual wif- 
dom beating in every fentence. 

There is a vaft difference between thefe writings 
full of arguments clear and intelligible, and the 
whimfies of thy Rabbies. who abound in facred fa- 
bles and divine romances. 

Who can perufe your celebrated Mifnah without 
difdain ? Or look into your more applauded Tal- 
mud, and not feel himfelf touched with horror at 
the monftrous blafphemies and ridiculous forgeries 
therein contained ? Doff, thou no-t laugh at the fcory 
of God's pickling up the Leviathan, till the days 
ef the Meffiah; and that other cf the bull which 
daily devours the fodder of a thoufand mountains ? 
Or, Wilt thou fhew me the neit of that bird, from 
whence, the Talmud fays, an egg, falling on the 
earth, threw down three thoufand tall cedars with 
its weight ; and, at length breaking, overflowed hx- 
ty villages with the liquid fubflance included in the 

K 2 Such' 


Such as thefe muft needs be fit themes for the 
■contemplations of the Omnipotent ! And yet your 
Rabbies teach that God ftudies nine hours in the 
•day in the Talmud. Can any man of common pie- 
ty hear thefe blafphemies and not tremble ? What 
-artronts are thefe to human fenfe ; what impofition 
on the reafon of the credulous Jews ? Does the moft 
perfefl of all beings acquire knowledge by degrees, 
•or is the eternal intellect improved by reading of 
books ? Or, if it was fo, Would he not make a bet- 
ter choice than of a volume, which, in the incredi- 
ble ftories it relates, exceeds all the figments of 

Tell me, Nathan, Canft thou fwallow that loud 
"lye of the Talmud which tells thee that there was a 
lion, who, when he roared at the diftance of four 
hundred miles from Rome, all the women that were 
with child in that city, being affrighted at the noife, 
mifcarried, and the walls of Rome fell down ? And, 
when he drew nearer by an hundred miles, he fet 
\ip his throat again, which made fo terrible a found 
that all the Romans teeth fell out of their heads, and 
the Emperor himfelf felt fuch convulfions as had 
almoft coft him his life. 

Surely the crow, which the Talmud fpeaks of, 
in another place, was but a puny to this monftrous 
lion ; and yet, it feems, that crow had fwallowed a 
ierpent that had eaten a frog as big as a village of 
threefcore houfes, and, when he had done, flew in- 
to the next tree. I fuppofe that was the tree which 
;grew in Paradife, and was five hundred miles high, 
according to the Talmud. Have I not reafon for 
this raillery, when one of your Rabbies folemnlv 
{wears, that he was an eye-witnefs of thefe things ? 
Who can forbear to ridicule the bigotry of thefe who 
;give up their faith to fuch delufions ? 

Thou wilt meet with more rational entertainment 
in the lenks of the MufTulman Doctors, more efpe- 
«cially in that tranfeript thou haft of the volume firfr 
■dictated in heaven. That confirms the true law of 



Mofes, but damns the impoftures of the Talmud,, 
attributing the invention of fuch errors to the devil. 

But thou wilt afk me, perhaps, what I mean by 
the true law of Moles ; mali I tell thee the opinion 
of one of thy own nation, a Hebrew of the He- 
brews, as he pretends, and, for aught I knew, of" 
the fame tribe with thyfelf : For I am a itranger to 
the genealogies of you both. 

Some years ago, here was in this city a man. who,, 
if we may believe him, has been in ali the cities or 
the world. The French cail him ■ The wandering 
c Jew ;' and he confirmed that title by the profeffioiy 
he made of his birth, defcent, and univerfal tra- 
vels. No doubt but thou hair, heard of this man, or 
at lean 1 of fuch a character ; and therefore I need not 
repeat what he faid of himfelf, and what the gene- 
rality of mankind believe of him. Suffice it to tell 
thee that I was once in his company half a day to- 
gether, when, among other difcourfes, he told me, 
that the true law of Mofes has been loft for above 
thefe tv/o thoufand years, except- in the North parts 
of Ada, where there are an infinite number of He- 
brews, but far different in their religion from all the 
Jews in thz reft of the world. He lays the country 
where they inhabit is invironed round with high 
and inaccemble mountains. I afked him the exacl 
geographical iituation of this country, but received 
no other anfwer, than that it lay beyond the river 
Sabbatico. Then I remembered what I had read 
in Efdras, a Scribe of thy nation, concerning the 
tranfrnigration of the ten tribes, who were carried 
away captive by the Ailyrians : How they paiTed 
through a certain river on dry ground, the waters 
being divided to the right hand and to the left ; and 
that, after the fame manner, they mould return again, 
in the latter days ; but that, in the mean time, the 
region where they live was hidden from all other 

Comparing this pafiage with what I had heard 

from the wandering Jew, I became almoft perfuaded 

that the people and country of which he fpoke were 

& 3 the 


the very fame mentioned by Efdras. God only can- 
difcern the truth from error, in hiftories of fo remote 
and ancient a fubjeci:. 

As to their religion, I was going to give thee a;i 
account of what he faid concerning it, but am in- 
terrupted by company. Wherefore I am forced to 
break oft abruptly. Expect, a full relation in my 
next. I am in hafle. 

Paris, 4th cf die ift Mcen, 
of die Year 1666. 


To the farr.e. 

TH E interruption, which made me fo {uddcniy 
conclude my other letter, laited not long ; fo 
that I have time enough to perform my promife by 
the fame. 

I was about to relate what the wandering Jew told 
me of the religion of thole remote Hebrews in Afia, 
which take as -follows : 

He fays they are a nation of PhiJofophcrs, bound 
bv their laws to ftudy the liberal arts and fciences. 
They have none but iron money current among 
them ; the ufe of gold and filver coins being exprefiy 
forbidden by their laws, to prevent the temptation 
of avarice and theft : For who would ileal or co- 
vet a metal, which, for its bulk, was not eafy to be 
hid, nor for its beauty v^ry defirable, being every- 
where common m the veins of the earth, and fervcd 
only as a method of barter and commerce- among 
themfelves, where the inequality of merchandifes 
intangled their traiflck, and would not admit of a 
ready exchange. 

This took from them the occafion of many un- 
necessary arts at home, and they had no temptations 
to travel abroad ; the chief defign of their Lawgiver 
being to oblige them to fpend raoft of their time in 



religious and philofophical exercifes, and the reft in 
preparing necelTaries for human fuftcnance. They 
had no need to buy any thing of foreign countries, 
or to build mips for that end, who were bound to 
live content with the natural product of their own 
fertile country : For luxury has not as yet fet foot- 
ing in that happy region, if we may believe this tra- 
veller. He fays they feed altoge her on the fruits 
of the earth, not admitting any art or employment 
which tends to fuperfluity, but only fuch as ferve 
the neceiTary ufes of life, wherein they fhew an ad- 
mirable dexterity and (kill. 

When they travel from one town to another, 
which is very frequent, they never carry any thing 
to defray their charges by the way, or when they ar- 
rive at their journey's end : All entertainment of 
this nature being free and reciprocal. Such is the 
euftom of the country. 

They have no Lawyers among them, but, if anv 
contention arife, it is presently determined by the 
arbitration of the next neighbour, to whofe fentence 
all fubmit: Ever/ man being willing to lofe fome- 
thing of lvs right, rather than difturb the publick. 
amity and peace. 

As to the manner of their worfhip, they are lirici; 
obfervers of purity in warning, anointing, and 
(having their bodies. 

They have temples alfo, where they aiTemble eve- 
ry feventh day ; and, having offered up the firft- 
fruits of the earth, they fit down in the courts,, 
and banquet together with joy, whijff. the Priefls 
entertain them with excellent mufickf'and fongs in 
praife of God and his works. To this end the 
courts of their temples are made very large, that they 
may contain fo many diftinct. families ; and ftately 
pavilions are fet up, adorned with the boughs of 
green trees, with all manner of flowers carelefly in- 
termixed. But, amidft- all their feaiting, they are 
not permitted to tafte of flefh : They eat only the 
fruits of the earth, with milk, honey, and oil. Ai.dr 
their common drink is water and wine. 

K 4 At 


At the age of fixteen year?, every man is bound 
to take the following oath : 

' I Swear that I will adore but one God, who 

* brought our fathers out of Egypt, and has conduct- 

* ed us by a myfterious path to this land ofPromile. 

* I will religioufly ferve him all my life, for that he 
c has vouchsafed to plant mein the family of his elect, 
' and not in either of the two tribes who were left be- 
' hind in the Land of Delufions. I will dojuftly to 
? all men, neither will voluntarily hurt or kill any 
' living creature,, unlefs it be in my own defence. 
8 I will not tafte of the flefh of any animal, but in 

* ail thfngs obferve the abftinence commanded by 

* Allah to Moles on the mount. I will religioufly 
c obey my Prince, to my lafr. breath; and rather be 

* torn to pieces by wild beairs, than betray him, or 
( con font to betray hirn to another : For he is the 
' Viceroy of Gcd. I will never conceal my know- 
' ledge of any con! piracy again ft him, or my country ; 
v neither will i difcover his fecrets to any, if it 
4 fhould ever be my honour to know them. I will 

* obferve the tradition of my fathers, and teach the 

* I folemnly fwear by the fir ft Father of light, and 
c by Nothing, the profound womb of darknefs ; and 
6 by Silence the companion of that Death which no 
c created being can fathom ; which is the fame as if 
c I (hould wiin myfelf annihilated, if 1 violate this 

* oath in the leali point.' 

Thefe are all the terms of the oaiji, that I can dif- 
tinctly remember, which I here infere, to fhev/ thee 
what opinion thefe people have of the law which was 
given to Mofes on the mount; and they reject the 
two tribes that were left in Pafeftine, and efteemed 
it that country, but as the Land of Delufions, as 


a spy at parts: 201 

counting their own country the region of promifes, 
and themfelves the elect of God. 

One would think that thefe were the pofterity of 
the ten tribes that were carried away captive by Sal- 
man afar King ofAfTyria. And this was alio the 
opinion of that wanderer, who told me, that both 
their Pentateuch was different from yours, and the 
language wherein it was written. For h. j laid it 
was rather a dialect of Arabick, in which language 
thou knoweft God wrote the ten commandments on 
the two tables : Among which one is, Thou fhalt 
not kill. This prohibition, they fay, extends to all 
living creatures, though your Doctors interpret is as, 
only reaching to men, and fo do the Chriitians. 
But the Muliulmans interpret it thus, Thou fhalt 
neither kill man nor beaft without reafen. By which 
claufe,. the beads are privileged from the wanton 
cruelty of men, who othérwife would murther them 
only to make fport ; yet wicked men are not exemp- 
ted from a violent death, as a punifnment of their 

This traveller fays alfo,, that the people of that 
country are (o healthy, that they generally live till 
they are a hundred and twenty years old, which is 
almofr twice the age of any other mortals. This he 
afcribes to their exquifite temperance and modera- 
tion in all things, as alfo to the drynefs of the foil, 
and to the force of certain winds, which continually 
fweep the air of this delectable region, and purge it 
of all hurtful qualities. 

If it ever be thy fortune to fee this perfon, he will 
acquaint thee with a great many more delightful 
paflages, which it would be too tedious for me to in- 
fert in a letter ; befides, my memory is treacherous, 
and I often forget thofe things, at one time, which 
I remember at another : But, if thou art follicitous 
to hear more, I will oblige thee with all that I can 
call to mind of this traveller, in another letter. 

In the mean time make a right ufe of thefe hints, 
and weigh one thing with another, examin 
things without prejudice or partiality. Truit no 
K 5 man's 


man's reafon but thy own in matters of a difputable 
nature, fince thou haft as much right to decide the 
controverfy as any man. And thus thou wilt never 
become a bankrupt in religion. 

Parrs, 4th of the ift Mocn, 
of the Year 1666. 


To Mohammed Hadgi, Derviie, Eremite 
of Mount Uriel in Arabia the Happy. 

AS I think this is the lai! of my hours in this 
world, and the tiril of a new life, which I 
fhail commencein immortality : I perceive, that the 
fatal period, the moment of tranfmigration, fet by 
deitiny, is approaching. The crafts of my blood is 
diffolving apace ; my fpirit haftens to get loofe from 
thefe mortal chains : I feel my foul trying and 
ftretching her wings, preparing to take her eternal 
flight to the region affigned her by God and nature. 

i have not prefumption enough to hope for Para- 
dife, nor am I fo abandoned to defpair, as to con- 
clude I mall go to hell. I rather believe Aaraf, or 
the Place of Prifons, will be my portion, in regard 
I fear the evils which I have been guilty of are not 
over-balanced by my good actions. It is well if 
virtue has counterpoifed vice in the courfe of this 
mortal life. However, I am refigned, and commit 
myfelf to the indulgent Creator of all things, who 
will not fail to difpofe of me according to the order 
which he has eftablifhed in the univerfe. 

Methinks, were I even in hell, I could not for- 
bear praifing that fountain of all things. I would 
teach the devils and damned a newlefTon of patience 
and contentednefs, of humility and devotion, of 
generouty and love, amidft their tremendous tor- 
ments. I would furvey with an indifference becom- 


ing a 'True Believer, the horrid abyfs, with al] its 
dreadful vaults and apartments. I would ccnfidcr 
the wonderful architecture ofthofe infernal prilbns; 
inexpugnable ftrengthof the walls; their prodigious 
thickneis and immoveable faftnefs ; I would con- 
template every thing with the reafon of a Philofo- 
pher, and the piety of a MuiTulman, not giving my-- 
felf up to the paffions of a fool and an Infidel. 

All this I imagine were eafy to perform in thofe 
fatal caverns, and much more ; but God knows how 
the experiment of fuch an intolerable anguifh and 
reitraint might alter a man's mind. 

However, I find it medicinal to think of the lad 
and worft things, to be always prepared for death, . 
and whatfoever (ball follow it : For furprifes aie 
apt to unman us, and plunder us of our reafon. I 
was in the heighth of a violent fever, when I began 
this letter ; yet now it is abated, and I palpably 
fed the gentle return of health and life. i his is 
owing, in my judgment, to the real belief I had, 
that my lad hour was come, whi h I have fo long 
expected. And I could almoft perfuade myfelf that 
I fhall difperfe a -thoufand maladies, recover out of 
the moft dangerous paroxyfms, and prolong my days, 
to old-age, by the mere force of thefe contempla- 

My faith on this point is grounded en experience : 
For 1 have often found, that to be armed againir. 
calamities with an even mind is either a fure way 
to avoid them, or at leale to protraci the feafon of 
their arrival. And if there were nothing elle in it, 
but the rendering them more eafy when they come, 
it were worth any man's pains to try the experiment. 

Doubtlefs there is no terror in death, but what the 
vain opinion of men creates. It is as pleafant for a 
thinking man to die as to live, if it be only for this 
reafon, that, in his pafTage from the life he had led 
before, he fhall not have bare naked ideas for his 
contemplation, but matter of fa<5t, and the moft 
important, that ever employed the fouls of men. 

K'6 Oh 


Oh admirable Sylvan ! Confider with thyfelt, 
whether it will not be highly grateful to thy lan- 
gCiifliing foul, when thou malt perceive demonftra- 
tively, by the infallible enthymema's of the trem- 
bling puìfe, that thou art juir. ready to be releafed 
from the deceitful fophiftry of human life ! That 
thou art near efcaping from a narrow cage, to be 
upon the wing- at large, to fly into the ample fields 
of beauty, light, and endlefs happinefs : Reflect alfo 
at the fame time, O holy Eremite, that I mould 
think it no pain to be freed from my confinement 
to a ftinking neft of Infidels. 

But why ihould I give them that reproachful 
epithet, when, for aught I know, I am a greater 
Infidel myfelf ? It is true, indeed, I am of the 
lineage of Ibrahim, Ifmael, and the holy race ; I 
bear in my body the ieals of a divine league or co- 
venant between God and man. I was circumcifed in 
due time, and gave fupreme glory to one God, and 
honour to Mahomet, his melìèngcr. I pronounced 
the {even myfterious words, whofe found excites the 
harmony of the fpheres, lets the angels a dancing,, 
puts all nature into motion, and makes the devil as 
deaf as a beetle. Nay, as our holy doctors teach, 
the very breath v/ith v/hich that facred confeflion is 
uttered', Hows the afhes of hell into the eyes of the 
damned, and ftrikes them blind. In a word, I 
have faffed, prayed, given alms, and performed all 
the external duties of a True Believer;- yet I have 
reafon to fear, that the beft of my pious actions are 
not fufficient to cancel my fins. My practice runs 
counter to my faith ; there feems to be a double fpi- 
rit in me, one inclining me to good, and the other 
forcing me to evil. For, whilft I really in my heart 
believe the Alcoran, and obey Mahomet, our holy 
Lawgiver, I am compelled to deny both, to profefs 
the life and manners of a Nazarene, to counterfeit 
an Infidel, and do a thoufand other ill things, to 
p'eafe the Grand Siguier and his Haves. Thus I 
play fall and loofe with God Almighty, and turn 
religion into crofs purpofes, Yet Heaven knows, 



that I obteft all the elements to witnefs, that I would 
fain be innocent, and live in unblemifhed virtue : 
But the fatal necefiities I lie under conftrain me to 
a perpetual courfe of vice. Which makes me fome- 
times cry out in the agonies of my foul, O God ! 
I pray thee either to alter my circumftances, and re- 
form my nature, or make new laws more eafy to be 

Venerable and patient folitary, bear with my im- 
portant complaints ,• and remember, that, though thou 
art as an angel for thy perfections, yet Mahmut is 
but a man, fubjecl to a thoufand frailties. Pity 
him, and continue to afford him thy fage counfel ; 
reft alfo afiured, that, among all his infirmities, he 
ftill retains inviolable affection and a dutiful regard. 
to the tenets of God's Prophet, 

Paris, 42 d of the id Moon, 
of the Year 1666. 


To the Kaimacham, 

THOU mayeft report it to the Divan for a 
certainty, that iVIirammud, the fon of the 
Xeriph at Sallee, is taken prifoner by the French. 
That bold youth has long roved the feas uncontroul- 
ed; has done many injuries to the Chriftians, and 
filled Sallee with (laves : Now he himfelf is become 
a captive. Such is the fortune of war by fea and 
land ; to-day triumphant and victorious, to-morrow 
vanquished and in chains. 

Yet he loft not his honour with his liberty, ha- 
ving bravely defended his vefTel, and ftrewed the 
decks with flaughtered French ; 'till, overpowered 
with numbers, he was compelled to yield. His 
enemies extol his courage, and the greatnefs of his 
mind, which would not fink under the preflure of 



this misfortune. He feemed to have the command 
of himfeif (which is the moil glorious victory) and 
fuffered not his free-born foul to be led captive by 
his paflions - y but behaved himfeif with fuch an even 
temper as placed him above the pity of his enemies, 
and rather made him the fubjectof their emulation. 
He is brought to the court, where he is entertained 
as a gueft, rather than ss a ori loner : Being invited 
to their banquets, mafks, plays, and other diver- 
lions. Neither is he debarred the privilege of 
hunting, which might give him the fairefr. oppor- 
tunity to efcape. But he is ignorant of the language 
of this country ; and few of the French understand 
Morifco : So that it is almofl impoiTibie for him to 
make a party, orconfulthis night, unlefs the King's 
interpreter ihould afilli: him. Befides, the French 
have a higher opinion of his generofity, than to ap-, 
prehend fuch an ungrateful return of the royal ufage 
he finds in this court. 

As for Ivlahmut, he has not yet made himfeif 
known to this brave captive. But, if the Minifters 
of the Divan mould think it the intereir. or honour 
of the Sublime Porte to engage in this affair, I want 
but a commi iiion to fet Mirarnmud fafe amore in 

I will not hazard any thing in an affair of this im- 
portance, without 2n order from my fuperiors. 
When their pleafure is once known, the execution 
fhall be fwift. I wait for thy commands, asfora 
decree of deftiny, which cannot be repealed. 

The God of our fathers, who multiplied the feed 
of Ifhmael as the grafs of tue field, and gave them 
the fovereignty over many nations, grant, that 
the Sublime forte, which is the nurfery of the faith- 
ful, may always take fuch rneafures as jQiall advance 
the intereft of the MufTulman empire. 

Paris, 14-th of the 3d Mocn, 
of the Year 1666. 

L E=T- 



To Hamel Muladdin, Xeriph of Sallee. 

TH Y fon is no longer a captive, but a con- 
queror : His hrft appearance before the Ladies 
of this court was an equivalent to his ranfom. He 
is like to do thee greater fervice by his chains, than 
when he ranged the feas. His beauty may do more 
miichief in trance, than all thy mips of war ; fince 
it hath already created fuch rivalfhips and factions 
among the fair fex as engage the French gallants 
on many unhappy rencounters ; and in a little time 
it will be difficult for the interefted fparks to meet 
and part with unmeathed fwords. Libels and pa- 
negyricks divide the ftudies of the wits ; while one 
flatters, the other lampoons the amorous females ; 
and Mirammud, the illuftrious flave, is all the talk. 
In a word, he finds royal ufage. having the liberty 
of the court ; and all are pleafed with his graceful 
deportment and undifguifed converfation. Every 
one affeòts his company, and he has the fate of 
Princes, never to be alone. His fkill in riding and 
throwing the lance has inflamed the noble youth 
with martial emulation. They eiteemed Miram- 
mud the moll accomplifhed perfon of this age. 

Canft thou now repine at thy fon's glorious 
thraldom ? A captivity that loads him with fo 
many honours ? That lays his conquerors at his 
feet, and fubdues all hearts to his matchlefs perfec- 
tions ? His followers find friendfhip among the In- 
fidels for his fake : It were to be wifhed, that equal 
humanity were fhewed to the Chriflian flaves in Bar- 
bary. I tell thee thy fon is fo admired and loved, 
that all thy treafure cannot redeem him. The 
French are generous, and fcorn to fell the brave for 
gold. They will focner give thee thy fon again, 
ex peeling from his gratitude a recompence furpaffing 
the value of money 3 that is, an inviolable observing 



the conditions of peace,, which, they fay, thou haft 
fo often broken. -Thy AmbafTadors are expected 
here, to confummate a lafting friendfhip. When that 
is done, thou wilt quickly Tee thy fon return, at- 
tended by a numerous train of French who have 
vowed to fellow his fortune through the world, fo 
long as he draws not his fcymetar again!!: their 

I have difpatched an account of this adventure to 
the Kaimacham, that fo the Sublime Porte, which 
gives the law to all the Kings of earth, may intereft 
ltfelf on thy behalf. The French feem to have a 
profound attachment to the Ottoman Empire : 
Whether it proceeds not more from fear, and the prin- 
ciples of policy, than from any real love to thelYluf- 
fulmans, I will not determine. They fpeak reve- 
rently of the Grand Signior, covet his friendfhip, 
and applaud the victorious enterprifes of the True 
Believers. Indeed, they are naturally a martial 
people, and honour all men of brave fpirits and da- 
ring refolutions. They have this particular reafon 
alfo to bear friendship to the invincible Ofmans, be- 
caufe we are almofr. continually in wars with the 
houfeof Auftria, the old enemy of France. The Ger- 
mans are wont to fay, that the dragon's head and 
tail are in conjunction, when the Turks and French 
invade their empire at the fame time. Thefe are 
numbered amongft the conflellations by aftrologers, 
to which the Germans allude in this proverb ; being 
ever jealous of fome private treaty between the Sul- 
tan and the French court. 

God, who is the wifeft of thewifeft, inftrucl thee. 
to adjuft thy difference happily with this noble na- 
tion, that fo thou mayeft fee thy fon again in peace 
at Sallee. 

Paris, 14th of the 3d Moon, 
ef the Year 1666. 




To Pcfteii Hali, his Brother, Mailer of the 
Cuftoms at Conftantinople. 

UPON my word, thy letter came in a critical 
hour, to prevent, for aught I know, more 
mifchicf than could have been repaired again all the 
days of my life. I have but juft taken my eyes off 
from it, and let pen to paper, to exprefs my thanks 
to thee for the care thou takeft of thy exiled brother; 
for the poft goes this night, and I have appointed to 
meet Eliachim the Jew with fome Armenians with- 
in thefe few minutes. It had been an unfortunate 
meeting for me, had not thy difpatch come fo op- 
portunely to give me warning of our coufin Soly- 
man's perfidy : For thefe furred caps are his fpies 
and confidants. The back blov/s of Tagot, Niged- 
her, and the great Devil, be upon him and them. 
What have I done to that ungrateful villain, to me- 
rit fuch ill offices from him ? But upon thee be the- 
mercies of God, the favours of his Prophet, and the 
benedictions of all good men and angels : For thou 
art to me as one of the watches above, more than 
a brother : Thou art the tutelar guide of my life,, 
my good Daemon in time of danger. 

We had defigned this evening for a private ban- 
quet of wine, which, thou knoweft, dilates the 
hearts of mortals, unlocks fecrets, and makes the 
moil referved man in the world too talkative and 

I keep as great a guard upon my tongue, perhaps, 
as another; but God knows how far I might have 
been tempted by fuch good company to let it loofe 
for the fake of difcourfe : For thefe fellows are foft 
as the air in their addrefs and converfaticn ;they ap- 
pear as innocent as Santones, iincere Hadgi's, loy- 
al and courtly as the pages of the Seraglio. They 



would wheedle ninety-nine of Argus's eyes out of 
his head fucceffively, before he milled one. 

They came firit to Paris as merchants ; and no 
doubt but Solyman had given them inftruc~tionshow 
to infinuate into Eliachim's acquaintance, and fo 
by degrees into mine. For that honeft Jew trades 
with people of all nations and characters. 

However it be, I remember the very words which 
thou infertedfr. in thy letter were fpoken by me in 
company with thefe Infidels. But I mail find a way 
to be even with them, and Solyman too, before 
they will dream of it. 

In the mean time, I pray heartily that, ifeveritfhall 
be thy misfortune to be in the like peril, deftiny or 
chance, providence or fate, may raiie fome friend to 
give thee a caution, and that thou mayeft not, with 
the unhappy Caefar, neglect to read it in time. 

I am now going to encounter thefe giafers ; per- 
haps I (hall catch them in their own fnares. If not, 
I will fecure they fhall not catch me. 

Dear Pelteli, may thy foul repofe under the pro- 
tection of God. 

Paris, l ft of the 5th Moon, 
of the Year 1666. 


To Dgnct Cglou. 

TO whom mould I complain in my adverfity, 
but to my friend ? I have been more em bar- 
raffed within thefe two moons than through ali the 
former courfe of my life. Troubles of divers kinds 
throng in upon upon me. I feem like a butt or 
mark, wmereat every fpecies of misfortune, like a 
fkilful archer, directs the fatal arrows of its malice. 
I am near overwhelmed with calamities. Heaven 
and earth are fet againft me, and all the elements 
confpire my ruin. Yet no perfection appears fo 



terrible as that of man, nor any affliction fo poig- 
nant as that which proceeds from the ingratitude 
and perfidy of my own countrymen, perfons related 
to me by blood. 

Age and much ficknefs have confined me to my 
bed for a confiderable time, whith is no fmall alloy 
to human happinefs. But, to render me perfectly mi- 
ferable, theMinifters of the Porte are angry with me 
for being old and infirm, and for not continuing to 
ferve the Grand Signior with the fame vigour and 
itrength as formerly : Elfe what mean the frequent 
rep oaches they fend me, whilft I am not in a con- 
dition to anfwer them, or make an apology for my- 
felf ? Would they have me immortal, and proof 
againft the ftrokes of defiiny and death, which thou 
knoweft are unavoidable : When I was in my 
prime, healthy and (Iron g as an eagle, they encou- 
raged me with the faireft promifes in the world, tel- 
ling me I mould never want for money, or the pro- 
tection of the Grand Signior. Yet, even then, I 
received not my penfion without murmurs and ob- 
fcure menaces. So hard a thing it is for Courtiers 
to be touched with any man's neceifities. But now 
they threaten openly to ftop all farther fupplies, un- 
lefs I grow young again, and do bufinefs as briikly 
as when I had reckoned but thirty fummers. Thus 
they ferve poor Mah m ut, as we uk oranges and le- 
mons, whole vital fpirit, when we have lucked out, 
we throw the reft away as unprofitable. Yet not 
one of them will contribute in the leaft to my reco- 
very. Only the generous Cara Hali, our beloved 
friend, hearing of my malady, fent me a ftrange 
chymical liquor, with the celebrated confection El 
Razi, fome bezoar, and the moil precious balm of 
Gilead ; all prepared to my hand with directions, 
and fealed with an authentick fignet. 

Thefe indeed had a marvellous operation on me. 
I tried them but yefterday, and find myfelf fuddenly 
reftored to fome degrees of health as by a miracle. 
Whether it be the vaft efteem I have for that excel- 
lent phyfician, with the confidence I repofe in his 



(kill and judgment, has had fome influence on me, 
or what eife 1 know not ; (yet we ufed to obferve, 
that the patient's good opinion of his phyfician is 
half a cure) : However, thole fovereign medicines 
have infpired me with a newenergy : And, had I not 
other afflictions to break my heart, I could almoft 
promife myfelf to reach the age of Neitor. But my 
unfortunate ftars will have it other wife, and I am 
refigned to deftiny. 

Thou knoweft my coufin Solyman, the turbant- 
maker; and art no {{ranger to his humours and for- 
tune; what an unfettled man he has been in the 
whole courfe of his life; that no employment could 
ever pleafe him, nor he be long fixed in any place. 
Kow he has rambled from Conftantinople to Scu- 
tari, from thence to Chalcedon, &:c. always mur- 
muring againft Heaven, and complaining of his hard 
fate, in that he was not bred a courtier, a ftadenr, 
a foldier, or any thing but what he really is. Thou 
art acquainted alfo with fome of his religious capri- 
ces, how he is add idled to doing the book, making 
the triple knot, and to a thoufand other foolifh iu- 
perllitions ; by which, whilft he afpires at the cha- 
racter of a fage, or a cunning man, he renders him- 
felf more contemptible than an idiot, forfeiting the 
efteem of all wife and good men, for the fake of a 
little fame, and noify character among the empty, 
giddy multitude. 

But, after all, I believe thou art" wholly a firanger 
to his fecret malice, and the rancour with which he 
perfecuted me, his poor exiled uncle. I myfelf was 
deceived by the fubtle apology he made fome years 
ago, for the ilander his tongue had uttered ; when he 
transferred all the guilt of that injury on Shafhim 
Ifham, the black eunuch; and Ichingi Cap Oglani, 
mailer of the pages. But now I am convinced he 
is a traitor, a villain, and a fellow void of faith and 

I received a letter from hiirr within thefe fev^n 
days, full of tender and infmuating expreiSons, 
thanking me for all the good offices I had done him, 

and • 


and for my feafonable counfel in feveral cafes : Pro- 
feffing alfo at the fame time an inviolable friendfhip, 
and that he would make it his ftudy to do me fome 
effectual fervice. Yet the next pofl brought me a 
difpatch from my brother Perieli Hali, wherein he 
bids me beware of Solyman ; alluring me, that he 
had good reafon to fufpect that coufin of mine had 
fome ill defign upon me. This is certain, fays my 
brother, Solyman boaits of his familiars, not with- 
out fome infult, that there is not a word or action 
efcapes his uncle Mah m ut at Paris, but he is 
foon informed of it at Conftantinople. And that 
which confirms me in the fame jealoufy with Pefteli 
is, that he inferts in his letter to me fome paflages 
and difcourfes verbatim, which I muft needs own to 
have been between me and Eliachim the Jew, with 
two or three Armenian merchants, at our moil: pri- 
vate meetings at Eliachim's houfe, or my chamber. 
Thefe he learned from fome of Solyman's moft inti- 
mate companions. 

What can I make of all this, but that thefe Ar- 
menians are of Solyman's council, his privado's, his 
chrone'es, &c. whom, having buiinefs of their own at 
Paris, that perfidious wretch has engaged to pry in- 
to my fecrets, to give him a conftant account of 
what difcoveries they make, and, if poffible, to tre- 
pan me into fome irrecoverable error in my conduci:, 
that fo he may finally ruin me. 

O Mahomet ! What is become of the reverence 
due to thy facred name, to thy law, and to the book 
penned in heaven ? Where is the Muflulman faith 
and integrity ? The religious faftnefs of friendfhip, 
with which our fathers propped up one another in the 
fervice of God, and the empire of True Believers ? 
But there is no need of exclaiming againft faith and 
piety on this account : Human nature itfelf is ref- 
ponfible for the bafenefs and ingratitude of my kinf- 
man. He no longer deferves the character of a man, 
I advife thee to fhun his company as a pefr 5 a. walk- 
Rig contagion among mortals. 



In a word, dear Dgnet, let not thou and I fuffer 
©urfelves to be carried away by a vain pity or tender- 
ne-fs for any man, though he be the fon of a mother's 
fitter, fince there is no truft in flefh and blood : But 
let us learn the maxims of French wifdom, which 
teach men to lay the foundation of their own hap- 
pinefs in fmiling at the misfortunes of others. 

Paris, 14th of the 6th Moon, 
of the Year 1666. 


To Harriet, Reis Effendi, Principal Secretary 
of the Ottoman Empire. 

BESIDES the general characters of countries, 
and the people inhabiting there, it is neceifary 
for thee to be informed of particular emergencies, 
and fuch events as deferve a place in the eternal re- 
cords of the Ottoman monarchy, the fifth and laft 
in the world ; that fo the miniilers of the auguri: 
Divan, the deftined arbitrators of the univerfe, 
judges of all human affairs, and counfellors of the 

freat Sultan, may in the facred code, as in a mirror, 
ehold whatever happens in the diftant climates, 
worthy of remark. 

After the falutations, therefore, proceeding from 
profound humility, intire refpeót, and perfect friend- 
ship, know, that a devouring peftilence has lately 
made a fatal decimation in the Engliih territories, 
efpecially In London, the capital city to that ifland, 
where above a hundred thoufand fouls, ftruck with 
invincible darts from God, went off the ftage of 
human life, in lefs than a fix moons revolution. 

The dire contagion by degrees fpread farther 
through the adjacent provinces, and reached themoft 
remote and foìitary corners of the land : Death fet 
his Standard up, proclaiming open war againff the 

inhabitants j 


inhabitants ; with flying troops of mortal plagues, 
he ravaged over the ifle, filling all parts with doleful 
cries and lamentations : The ccemeteries were not 
large enough to hold the carcafes of fuch as fell be- 
fore the dreadful conqueror : But open fields were 
turned to fepulchres, and crammed with fpoils of 
human race : An univerfal defolation reigned : 
Death celebrated cruel triumphs every-where. 

Such as pretend to aftrology and hidden fclences 
will have this to be an effecl of the late comet which 
appeared at the end of the year 1664, whilft others 
attribute it to nearer natural caufes ; and fome con- 
clude it is a judgment fent from Heaven on that re- 
bellious people, who a few years before had involved 
the nation in a civil war, and barbaroufly maflacred 
the King. God only knows the truth that is con- 
cealed from man. 

Thou mayeft regifter alio, that the Queen-mo- 
ther of France is newly dead, and the crook-backed 
Prince of Conti. On which account, this court 
is now in mourning, and the churches hung with 
black, which melancholy bells perpetually invite 
the living to pray for the deceafed royal Jouls ; and 
deep-bafied organ-pipes breathe out. incefiànt doleful 
afpirations, founding like inarticulate prayers, and 
funeral fighs for the departed. In this the Naza- 
renes approach near to the faith of True Believers. 
They give alms alfo as we do, and fettle itipends 
on certain priefls and dervifes, to mumble over 
daily mafTes for the dead ; which is an evident figh, 
that they have hopes of immortality, and look for 
the refurreclion. Doubtlefs, there is fomething good 
at the bottom of all religions, though it be overlaid 
with errors and corruptions. 

God direct us through the meanders which hu- 
man frailty involves us in, and grant every MufTul- 
man a particular chart and compafs whereby to 
fteer his courfe through the uncertain tracks of mor- 
tal life, that he may at 1 aft arrive in Paradife. For 
we {hould never find the way thither by general 



Illuftrious Hamet, I pray that thou and I may at 
a deftined hour encounter one another in the walks 
of Eden, there to converfe under immortal fhades, 
Ji2a.r to fome warbling ftream of matchlefs wine or 
water j to revolve our pair, fatigues on earth, and 
to carefs ourieives in the fecurity of endlefs blifs. 

Paris, 15 th of the 7 th Moon, 
of the Year 1666. 


To Nathan Ben Saddi, a Jew, at Vienna. 

THOU and thy feigned Meflias be damned 
together for company ! Muft I be baulked 
of my money for the fake of your new fuperiKtion ? 
How many Meffias's have ye had, twenty- five at 
lead:, befides the fon of Mary, who is acknowledged 
and blefled for ever ? Muft all the world be bubbled 
to eternity by the fables of your nation ? Curfe up- 
on your Rabbi's and Cochams, thofe pimps to the 
more religious debaucheries of mortals. Nathan, 
I took thee for another fort of man. How- 
ever, if thou art a fworn fervant to Sabbati Sevi, 
the new fham King of the Jews, I have nothing 
to fay to it : Do as thou wilt. But I dare be a 
prophet fo far as to tell thee thou wilt be curfedly 
left in the lurch, with the reft of the fools, thy 
bigotted brethren. Let what will be, it behoves 
thee, as an honeft man, to tranfmit the bills that 
are intruded to thee. Whether Sabbati Sevi, Ben 
Jofeph, or Ben David, be the name of your ex- 
pected MciTias, I would not have Ben Saddi dege- 
nerate. Continue thou faithful, and the few others 
that are intruded with the fublime affairs of the 
Porte : And let all the reft of the common Jews 
goto Gehenna, or to the vale ofTophet, which 
you pleafe. But I would fain have thee in 



the number of the righteous, who ihall poflefs 
paradifes. Some of thy letters have encouraged me 
to hope for this, but thy laft makes me almoft óz{- 
pair of feeing thee happy either in this world or the 
next : For thou writeft like one in a frenzy, rav- 
ing on chimera's of ftrange honour, glory, and pow- 
er, which thou fhalt (hortly enjoy in the kingdom 
of thy fantaftick Mefftas ; thou art already a Prince 
in thy own conceit. 

For God's fake, Nathan, wean thyfelf from thefe 
religious fondnefles : Awaken thy reafon, which is 
thediftinguiming character of a man. Examine the 
grounds of this new delufion ; fearch into the birth 
and origin of Sabati Sevi, and thou wilt find him 
to defcend of an obfeure and bafe parentage ; his fa- 
ther being but a kind of mungrel Jew, and by pro- 
feflion an ufurcr, which is forbidden by the written 
law of Mofes, and in the great Alcoran it is ac- 
counted execrable : His mother, a woman of the 
Curds, fufpecled for a witch, in regard moli of 
that Infidel nation practife magic arts and diaboli- 
cal charms. And it is not altogether improbable, 
that your counterfeit Meffias was educated privately 
by her in the fame ftudies, whence he learned the 
methods of inchantments and illufions ; to deceive 
the fenfes,*'ahd impofe on the reafon of mankind. 

I can tell thee of a truth, that there are more eyes 
on him and his actions, than he is aware of ; and I 
myfelf at this diftance have received a particular re- 
lation of his life, from fuch as knew him a youth at 
Smyrna, the place of his nativity. He is accufed of 
many vices and extravagancies during his early- 
Tears. His converfation was wild and dilTolute, be- 
ing a noted inamorato or llallion over all that city. 
For which, and ibme other crimes, he was expelled 
the Synagogues ; and banifhed from Smyrna, by 
the mutual content of the Mufiulman Cadi and 
your own Rulers. He was alio excommunicated by 
the Rabbi's as a Heretick, for broaching certain 
doctrines repugnant to your law, and the general 
faith of the Jews. All which cannot but be pre- 

Vol.VL h vailing 


vailing recommendations of him to the office of Mef- 
fias, or King of I Trae] . 

From thence he rambled up and down the Morea 
-and other provinces of Greece, leaving a memorial 
of infamy, wherever he let his foot: Continually 
marrying and divorcing of wives, debauching of 
virgins, and frequenting the company of harlots, 
till thole countries grew weary of him, and threat- 
ened to chaff ife his wickednefs. 7nen he paffedover 
into Syria and Palesine, beginning to fet up for a 
-reformer of your law, and at Jerufalem openly pro- 
■f e fling himfelf to be the Meffias ; whereby he drew a 
rabble of lunaticks and frantick people after him. 
But, as for the Seniors and Governors, they have 
rejected him as an impoffor, 

Confider, Nathan, the fate that befel Ben Co- 
chab, as he called himfelf; that is, the fon of a 
liar, who pretended to be the Meffias in the days of 
Adrian, Emperor of the Romans ; reflect, on the 
calamities which overwhelmed him and his follow- 
ers, to the number of four hundred thou land Jews ; 
who all fell, with their faife Prophet, facrihees to 
the juft revenge and fury of that incenfed Monarch: 
For they had impudently boafted, that, by fuch a pre- 
fixed time, he mould be taken captive, and depofed 
from his throne by the Meffias, who mould allume 
the Imperial dignity, and all the world mould obey 
him. But, when thofe who furvived the {laughter 
of their brethren reflected on the author of fo tra- 
gical a cataftrophe, they changed his name in con- 
temptand hatred, calling him no longer Ben Cochab, 
the fon of a ftarj but Bar Cuziba, the fon of a lye, 
a falfe Prophet, and feducer of the brethren. 

Thcu haft all the reafon in the world to have 
no better opinion of Sabbati Sevi, fince he is rejected 
by the wifer fort of Jews, and has not performed one 
miracle in confirmation of his pretended Meffias- 
(hip. Neither has any uncommon or preternatu- 
ral appearance happened before or fmce he aftumed 
this 'dignity. Whereas, all your Rabbi's teach, 
that novels than ten eminent and remarkable prodi- 
5 . gie$ 


pes fhall precede the coming of your MefHas. And 
1 remember, that thou thyfelf, about ten years ago, 
fenteft me a letter much to the fame effect, telling 
me, that certain monitrous forts of men mould 
come from the end of the earth, whofe eyes mail be 
as venomous as bafilifks; with a great many otner 
itories of the like nature. 

Haft thou forgot this, Nathan, or art thou fo far 
infatuated with the bold impoftures of this impu- 
dent deceiver, as, for his fake, to deny thy fonntr 
faith, reverfe thy own fentiments, and difannul the 
Traditions of thy Doctors ? For fhame, roufe up 
thy intellectual faculties, and fuffer not thy rcafoa 
to be lulled aflerp by the preftigious umbrages and 
charms of a lewd vagrant, a wizard* a cheat. 

Have but patience, at leaft, till thou fee thole 
figns accomplimed which are to ufher in your Mef- 
fias, before thou give up thyfelf to fo dangerous a 
credulity. Let the fun firft emit thofe peftilential 
vapours, which mail kill a million of the Kophrim, 
or Infidels, every day, as your traditions threaten. 
Let that luminary be alfo totally eclipfed for the 
fpace of thirty days. In a word, let all the other 
prodigies come to pafs, which thou thyfelf didfl 
once fo paffionately believe : And then I promifc 
thee, on the word of a Muftulman, that I will be 
thy profelyte, and embrace thy law, and adore thy 
Meffias, on the condition that otherwife thou wilt be 
my convert, believe the Alcoran, and obey the mef b 
fenger of God, the laft and feai of the Prophets. 

Paris, 1 1 th of the 9th Moon, 
of the Year 1666. 

I.2 LET- 



To the Kaimacham. 

I A M afraid the Divan will be obliged to fend 
another Agent to Vienna, to fupply the place of 
Nathan Ben Saddi, who is running mad after the 
new Meffias of the Jews. There is no doubt but 
thou and the other happy Minifters, refiding at the 
auguftePort have heard of acertain impoftorat Smyr- 
na, by name Sabbati Sevi, of a Hebrew race, who 
calls himfelf ' The only begottenSon of God,' Mef- 
fias, and Redeemer of Ifrael ; and what multitudes of 
doting, credulous Jews he draws after him. So that 
there is a fchifm broke out between them, and they 
are divided into two contrary factions, both in 
Smyrna, and ail over the Levant. It is impoffible 
that thefe things mould be concealed from the re- 
fplendent feat of Fame, fince they have reached even 
our ears, who dwell at this diftance : Nay, there 
is hardly a province or city in all the Weft, which 
has not received intelligence of fo remarkable % 

I have received adifpatch from Zeidi Alamanziat 
Venice, wherein he informs me, that all the Jews 
of Italy are preparine to vifit the Holy Land, and to 
fee the face of their long expected Meffias, who they 
now believe is really come on earth, and is that Sab- 
bati Sevi at Smyrna. They are fettling their af- 
fairs as faft as they can, acquitting themfelves from 
all worldly engagements ; and thofe who are devout 
give themfelves up to prayer and mortifications ; 
whilft others fpend their time in feafting, dancing, 
and all manner of mirth. He fays fome of them 
will fit or ftand up to their nofe in water, for four 
and twenty hours together. And this they do in 
imitation of Adam's penance, according to their tra- 
ditions : For they are taught, that the firft Father of 
mortals, after he wasbanimcd fromParadiiè, as apu- 



nifliment for his fin, ftood ahundred and thirty years 
together in water thus reaching up to his noftrils. 

Others of thefe fuperftitious people will fit naked 
many hours together on a heap of piimires, till they 
are almoft ftung to death. A third fort dig their 
own graves, and, going down into them, caufe them- 
felves to be covered all over with earth, except only 
their faces ; and in this condition they will lie till 
they are almoft: famifhed. 

In the mean while, they fend circular letters from 
all parts, congratulating each other's approaching 
happinefs and deliverance from the oppreffions of 
the Gentiles : For they fo term all that are not of 
their own nation. And, in thefe mutual addrefles, 
they fail not to prophefy, that their Meflias fhall, 
in fuch a moon, go to the great Tyrant, King of 
the Ifmaelites, the Lord of the children of Moab and 
Edom ; (fo they blafpheme our glorious Sultan) 
that he fhall depofe him from his throne, and lend 
him away captive ; after which he fhall have the 
dominions of the whole earth laid at his feet. 

With fuch kind of wild fluff, do thefe deluded 
people flatter one another and themfelves, as if in a 
little time they were to be Lords of all things. So 
that no trading or commerce goes forward among 
them ; an univerial flop is put to all bufinefs, it be- 
ing efteemed an inexpiable fin to follow their trades 
in the days of the MeiTias, who is to inrich them with 
the wealth of all nations. 

Strange rumours are fpread abroad of the return 
of the ten tribes over the river Sabbation, who were 
carried away captive by SalmanafTar, King of Af- 
fyriaj and were never heard of lìnee, till now they dif- 
courfe oftheirbeing incamped in thedefart of Mount 
Sinai, in their march to the HoJy Land. It is re- 
ported alfo, that a mighty fleet of mips were iQ€n at 
fea, whofe fails were of fattin, and their ftreamers 
bore the figure of a lion, with this inferiptien, 
'The lion of the tribe of Judah'. 

The Chriflians feemed aftonifhed at thefe things, 
yet fome look on them only as dreams. As for ho- 

L 3 iieft 


neft Eliachim here, he is no more moved at thefé 
things than I ; only he laughs at the folly of the 
credulous world, and curfes the Jews, for bringing 
fuch contempt on themfelves and their pofterity. 
But Nathan is like one hag-ridden, or defiled by the 
lamise of the night. He has loft all reafon, and it 
will be no lefs than a mir-acle that muft reftore it 

Sage Minifter, whilft thefe execrable people thus 
lofe themfelves, for the fake of their counterfeit 
Meffias, let us continue to honour the true one, 
even Jefus the fon of Mary, who is now in Paradife^ 
and cur holy Prophet with him. 

Pari?, 21 ft cf the 9th Moon, 
ci the Year 1666. 

To Murat, Balla. 

THIS has been a confiderable year of actions 
and events. At the beginning of it I font to 
the Porte an account of the death of the Queen-Mo- 
ther of France, and of the Prince of Conti ; now I 
will farther inform thee of a war that is broke out 
between this crown and that of England. The 
occafion of it was this: The Englifh and the Hol- 
landers, trafficking in America, had had fomemifun- 
derfrandings and feuds, about the limits of their fe- 
veral conquefts in thofe remote parts of the world. 
The Hollanders, being the ftrcngeft, did many inju- 
ries to their neighbours the Englifh, and domineer- 
ed over them as their Lords. The Englifh, refenting 
this very heinoufly, and grown weary of their op- 
preiTions, fent complaints to their King. He, to re- 
drefs his fubjecls, ordered his Refident at the Hague 
to demand fatisfa&ion of the States. They refufed 
to do him that juftice. ; upon which he, was re- 



folved to have recourfe to his arms, and accordingly 
proclaimed war againft Holland, making all necei- 
&ry preparations to carry it on. The fame did his 
adverfaries. The French King, in the meantime, 
was obliged, by a treaty with the Hollanders con- 
cluded in the year 1662, to efpoufe their quarrels ; 
yet, that he might not break with England rafhly, 
he nrft fent an AmbafTador to that Court, to mediate 
a peace. But, that proving ineffectual, he proclaim- 
ed war againft that nation, and commanded the 
Englifh Ambaifador to depart his kingdom. The 
Duke of Beaufort, who is Admiral at fea, was or- 
dered to equip a gallant fleet, and join the Dutch 
navy ; which he performed with all imaginable di- 
ligence and expedition. There have been two 
combats between thefe enemies at fea, and in both 
the Dutch had the worft of it : Neither did the 
French efcapewithout fomelofs, havtngtwo of their 
greateft Jhips feverely mattered, and a third taken 
by the Englifh. 

The plague (till rages in England, and has al- 
moft depopulated whole provinces. Wnilft a milder 
death has robbed France of one of her greateft he- 
roes, the Count d'Harcourt, of whom I have of- 
ten made mention, is gone to celebrate the triumphs 
due to his valour and fortune in another world. 

The Emperor of Germany has at laft married the 
Infanta of Spain, after abundance of demurs and 
helitations about that bufi ne fs. Thcfe Nazarenes 
can do nothing with expedition. The fpiritual 
Courts, as they call them, have more tricks and 
cramp words to amufe people with, than an Indian 
mountebank, or jugler. Neither arc fovereign Prin- 
ces more exempt from their jurisdiction, than the 
meaneft of their fubjecls : .Li peci ally the Court of 
Rome can make or annul marriages at pieafure. 
And they are fure to be excommunicated who re- 
fufe to fubmit to their order?. This holy Court 
can alfo bind or releafe fins, open or fhut the gates 
of Paradife, make a devil a faint, or a faint a devil. 
In a word, they can do everv thing, if there be gold 
L 4 in 


in the cafe. But, if that he wanting, they can do 
.nothing but fhrug their moulders. 

Thou mayeft alio inform the Divan, that the 
French King has given permiilion to lbme of his 
Subjects to undertake the conqueit. of America, and 
eftabliih a commerce in that part of the world. Ma- 
ny vcfTels are equipped, in order to this expedition ; 
and they that are concerned in the voyage are as 
merry as Jafon and his Argonauts, when they were 
preparing to fetch the golden fleece from Cclchos. 
That Weftern continent affords immenfe riches, 
etnpts all the nations in Europe to make an ex- 
periment of their fortune, in gaining one part of it 
or other. It were to be wifhed it lay nearer to the 
Ottoman Empire. No record can difcover the ori- 
gin of the inhabitants. Yet moft authors conjec- 
ture, that they pafTed over from theNorth-eaft parts 
of Alia, where the ilreights of Anian are very nar- 
row, and would invite fea- faring men to feek new 
adventures. Befides, by their being Cannibals, it 
appears very probable, that either they defcended 
from the Tartars, or the Tartars from them. God 
alene knows how to adjufi: the difference, and reveal 
the lecrets of hiitcry. 

Brave BafTa, it is no matter from what ftock we 
are defcended, fo long as we have virtue ; for that 
alone is the only true nobility. God regale thee 
with his favours. 

Paris, 30th of the 9th Moon, 
of the Year 1666. 




To Pefteli Hali, his Brother, Mailer of th* 
Cuftoms, and Superintendant of the Alie- 
nai at Conftantinople. 

WHEN I hear of thy profperity, my heart it 
dilated, like his who has found hidden, 
wealth. Yet, I am forry for the difgrace of the 
good eld man, thy predeeefTor : But we rauft not 
cenfure the conduci: of our Superiors. The juftice 
of their actions is not to be called in queftion. The. 
Sultan cannot err. This is an eftablilhed maxim ia 
all monarchies, efpecially in that part of the re- 
nowned Ofmans. 

As for what relates to thee in this new advance 
thou haft made, thy own experience acquired by 
many years travel and obfervation in foreign coun- 
tries, added to the kaowledge thou haft in the laws, 
difcipline, and cuftoms of thy own, will be a fuffi- 
cient guide to conduct thee in the management of 
thy buiinefs. Yetdefpife not the counfeL of others. 
A man is never nearer to ruin, than when, he trufts 
too much to his own wifdom. Therefore the great- 
eft Emperors underrake nothing of moment rafhly^ 
or without advice. Temerity often blafts the fairelt 

It will be of particular import to thee to hear of 
a tragical event that has lately happened toRezan, a 
great city in Ruffia, by the blowing up of the maga- 
zine. This gun-powder does more mifchief than 
good in the world. The ancients fought as fuc- 
cefsfully, with bows and arrows, fwords and fpears, 
and other inftruments of war, without running the 
hazard of blowing up whole cities into the air, in 
time of peace. And they could undermine the 
ftrongeftcaftles, even thofe fituated on rocks, with- 
out the help of this infernal duft. Nature taught 
them to be indufh'ious, in defeating their enemies, 
L 5 smd 


and they {"pared no labour to gain the victory. Oct 
tore-fathers were hardy and itrong, patient of toils 
and fatigues : They cut their ways into mountains 
cfilone, if any place of ftrength were built on it, 
which they had occafion to befiege. And, as they 
hewed away that part of the rock which fupported 
the walls, they underpropped the foundation with 
wooden pillars. And, when they had finilhed their 
mines, they fet fire to certain combuitible matter, 
which confuming thefe fupports, the walls and 
gates that refted on them funk down, and left the 
fortrefs naked and open to the beiiegers. 

It had bec-n well for the inhabitants of Rezan, if 
their city had been only thus gently diiVnantled by 
fome enemy, agami! whom they might have after- 
wards employed their courage, to defend themfelves, 
or make composition. But, poor unfortunate peo- 
ple, they have felt a ruder fhock, an unmerciful 
blow of fate, in their city being in a minute's time, 
.without the leair. warning, (formed, plundered, and 
laid in a heap, by an enemy which gives no quarter. 
This accident happened on the 15th of la ft moon,. 
about the hour of Ulanamifi.- Tht re were five hun- 
dred barrels of powder in the magazine ; and the 
force of the blow was fo violent, that, befides the 
destruction of the city, or at leaft the beft part of it, 
all the neighbouring villages round about it felt its 
fatal effects, fome of their houfes fhaking as in an 
earthquake, others falling to pieces. 

Aifuredly, Heaven is angry with thefe Infidels, 
and turns the very instruments of their defence and 
fafety into fcourges for their chaftifement. I for- 
merly fent Saleh, the Superintendant, an account 
of the like misfortune that befel the city of Grave- 
lines in Flanders, and. of other terrible effects of the 
wrath of Heaven in the Low- countries. One di fal- 
ter follows clofe on the back of another ; yet the In- 
fidels are infenfible and itupid, as they v/ere in the 
days of Noah., when the flood came and furprifedall 
the inhabitants of the country. That Prophet gave 
them warning of the approaching danger. He was 



three whole years cutting down Indian plane-trees, 
and preparing planks, beams, pins, and other ne- 
ceflaries, and {even years more in building that won- 
derful fhip. The Infidels went by daily, and faw 
him at work ; but they derided the patient Apoitle, 
and taught their children to mock him, faying, 
4 Where is the water this fhip is to fail in ? ' After 
the ark was finiihed, it lay on the ground {even 
moons, till they had thrice facrificed lbme of No- 
ah's followers to their idols. 

It was perfected in the moon of Rajeb, and in the 
moonofSaphar was the decree of the chaftifernent 
figned, which was to be executed on all of mortal 
race, but Noah, and the fourfcore that were with 
him, with two pairs of every fpecies, which the 
four winds, by God's appointment, collected toge- 
ther and drove into the ark, and the body of Adam, 
which was unfhrined and brought to Noah, by 
angels out of the region of Mecca. There was alfo 
Philemon, the goodPriefr. of Egypt, with his whole 

Juft as the determined day and hour of the flood 
was come, the Prince of the country, {limolateci 
by his evil deftiny, mounted his horfe, with fome of 
his retinue ; and, having facrificed to their idols, 
rode towards the place where Noah and his company 
were fhut up in the ark, with a defign to burn it to 
afhes. He called out aloud to their Prophet, with 
fcofFs, faying, ' O Noah, where is the water in 
which this fhip is to fail ? ' ■ it will be with you 
incontinently/ replied the holy man, ' before you 
can remove your ftation.' ' Come down, thou 
dotard,' faid the proud Infidel, 4 otherwise I will 
burn thee and thy companions with fire. ' * O 
miferable man, ' faid Noah, ' turn to God, for his 
judgments are ready to buri! forth on you. ' 
The Prince, incenfed at this, commanded his 
Haves to put fire to the ark. But, while he was yet 
fpeaking, he manifeftly faw the water guihing out 
on all hands round about him, and under his feet. 

L 6 fear, 


fear. He haftened to fecure himfelf" with his-family 
and goods, in the caftles which he had built on the 
higheft. mountains. But alas ! The earth opened, 
and broke like a fpider's web •; (o violent was the 
force of the waters which boiled up every-where. 
The clouds poured down vaft cataracis of rain, 
mixed with dreadful and infupportable thunder and 
lightning. That miferable Infidels thronged upon 
one another, curfing and blafpheming their gods 
who had deluded them. Great was the confuiion 
and cry every- where ; for fuch a calamity had never 
been known, fince the moon gave her light. If any 
were fo nimble as to reach the foot of a mountain, 
yet he could not afcend by reafon of fiones which 
fell on his head, and torrents of boiling water that 
ran down upon him, as if it had come out of a cal- 
dron. And, fuppofe he had reached the top, it had 
been but a fhort delay of his fate : For, in a word, 
the waters iwelled forty cubits above the higheft 
mountains, and all the living generations perifhed. 

Son of my mother, when thou readefì: this memoir 
(for it is a fragment of an ancient Arabick writing) 
think on the day of judgment, which mail furpriie 
the world, even as the deluge did. At that hour, 
the greateft part of men will not dream of any fuch 
thing, till they fee flames and rivers of fire burfting 
forth from the fprings and fountains, which before 
yielded water, and fhowers of fire, defcending from 
heaven, inftead of rain. For the elements wilì 
change their courfes, to accomplifh the decrees of 
him who made them, and to confummate the re- 
venge of the Omnipotent againrt Unbelievers. 

Paris »d of the nth Moon, 
•f the Year 1666. 



To Ufeph, BafTa. 

SURELY, the Gods of the Englifh are angry 
with that people, and the guardian Spirits of 
the ifle have forfook their charge. I fent a difpatch 
at the beginning of this year to Murat, Bafla, where- 
in I informed him of a deftruciive plague, raging at 
London, and in other parts of the nation. That 
peftilence continues ftill, but under different forms, 
to aflault the living, and augment the number of 
the dead. 

God only knows the origin of thefe epidemical 
contagions ; whether they derive their pedigree 
from heaven or hell ; from the earth, or any other 
elements. Perhaps, fome latent poifons in the air 
mix with the breath of mortals, and by their fubtile 
energy foon diffipate the vital flame of human bo- 
dies, like the infectious blafts of the wild El-famiel 
in Arabia, which, in a moment's time, commits a 
rape upon the life of travellers, fcorching their fpi- 
rits up, and leaving on the fands a black, ftift" car- 
cafe of jellied flefh, as though they had been thun- 
der-ftruck. Or, perhaps, fome venomous exhalati- 
ons from the minerals below tranfpire through 
chinks and crannies in the earth, to plunder mortals 
of their breath, like to the fatal vapours in the cave 
of death, not far from Virgil's grotto in Italy. Or, 
who can tell, but that fome hidaen meteors above, 
or fome malignant ftars, may fend down whole bat- 
talions of impoifoned atoms, to invade this region 
of mortality, and in death's name, King of the 
world invincible, to claim and carry away a certain 
number of ghoits, pricked down by deftiny, a tri- 
bute fet by fate ? However it be, that whole ifland 
may be well called, at this time, the grand infirma- 
ry of Europe, where baneful ficknefs makes its pub- 
lick refidence. The timorous Giafars run from 
place to place, thinking to efcape from Heaven's 



all-fearching purfuivants. They flee from populous 
towns to villages ; and from thele again to unfre- 
quented defarts, woods, and heaths, carrying their 
wives and children with them, and all the fubitance 
of their houfes. The reads are covered with the 
caravans of doubtful paiTengers, who dread to think 
of going back to the contagious feats they left bthmd, 
yet know not where to be received a-new. So ge- 
neral is the confiernation, io ìlrong the fear of thofe 
who yet furvive, leif. they fhouid alfo catch the 
infeciicn and die. 

Befides this, they have felt the ilrokes of another 
furpnfmg calamity ; London, the capital city of 
England, being newly confumed by fire. It is not 
certain, whether defign or chance nrft kindled the 
devouring element. But it fell out at an unlucky 
feafon, when the wind was high, and from its Eas- 
tern a/darters blew the flames full Weic, which, 
fpreading North and South, demolifhed all before 
them, laying the greateft part of that rich and fa- 
mous city in afhes. 

Some afcribe this to a plot of «.he French ; others 
term it a judgment of God, for their rebellion, pride, 
and other crying fins. Whiift, with equal probabi- 
lity, a third fort affirm it was contrived and put in 
execution by a cabal of carpenters and mafons, 
who, wanting employment, and projecting the me- 
thod of inriching themfelves, difdaining alfo the 
inartificial and obfolete form of buildings, refolved 
to put this city into a new figure, and raife it* ac- 
cording to the models of foreign architeciure. Every 
one guefTes as his affections incline him, or his con- 
jectures follow the byafs of his intereft. Men are 
always partial to themfelves and the caule they have 
efpoufed. God only knows the truth; 

The fuperfntious among the Roman Catholicks 
take occahon, from the timing of this horrid confla- 
gration, to infult over the Englifh Protefknts ; 
who, from fome obfeure pallages in the book of 
their gofpel, ufed to foretel, in a prophetick man- 
ner, that the final ruin and catafhophe of Rome 



would happen in this year 1666 : Whereas, by fa- 
tal experience, more lure than vain predictions, 
they find the metropolis of their own nation reduced 
to afhes. 

Whoever are the inftruments in thefe tragedies, it 
is certain the deligns of fate are ftill performed» 
Every kingdom, irate, and community, has its 
critical periods and climadtericks, wherein itfuffers 


This blank the Italian preface mentions, and fays 
it is owing to the lofs of fome part of the Arabick 
letter, fuppofed to be torn off by chance, or oa 
ionie other occafion. 

Paris, ad of the 1 1 th Moon, 
of the Year 1666. 


To Cara Hali, Phyfician to the Grand 

I A M melancholy, beyond the defcription of 
painters, poets, or the lively eloquence of Ci- 
cero. Methinks, I am fome exotick being ; a per- 
fect, foreigner on earth ; a ftranger to its laws and 
maxims. I appear to other mortals, like a Giafar, 
or Frank, in his Weltern drefs at Morocco, Baby- 
lon, or Conitantinople. I mean not for my out- 
ward habit (for in that I am conformable enough to 
the mode of the region where I refide) but I am all 
unfafhionable within ; ridiculous in my fentiments 
and converfation. When others laugh, I figh, and 
find a realbii to be fad, in the midft of merry com- 


pany. Even wine itfelf, that exhilarates all the 
world behdes, does but increafe my melancholy, by 
adding ftrength unto my labouring thoughts. It 
fu bli mates my fpirits up to facred phrenfies. I am 
a lunatick at fuch a time. Each glafs creates new 
dreams more wild, than the ftrange flights and rap- 
tures of a Santone. My heated fpleen, like mount 
Gibe), belches forth horrid clouds of fmoke and 
vapours* which lay long {mothering in its fpongy 
caverns ; thefe quickly fpread and cover all the ho- 
rizon of my foul, rendering it dark and gloomy as 
the Cimmerian folitude, or the more difmal vallies 
bordering on the river Styx, where furly Charon 
waits to ferry over the caravans of trembling ghofts 
and land them in Elyfium. 

Oh ! That thofe fables of the ancient poets were 
but true \ Or, that I knew but fomething certain 
of our future fiate ! Whether the foul furvives or 
no, when death has itopped the circulation of our 
blood ? And what becomes of that immortal fub- 
flance, after its parting from the body ? Whether 
it pafs by tranfmigration into the embryo of fome 
other animals, as Pythagoras taught ; or be uni- 
ted, fwallowed up, and loft, in the univerfal foul 
of the world, as Plato did believe ? Or, if fome 
other magnet does attract its prefence ; and hidden 
fymphathies of nature teach to form itfelf a vehicle 
or body of the elements ! Perhaps, fome fouls unite 
with air, whilft others mix with water, earth, or pu- 
rer fkies,. This, for its horrid iins in its mortal ft ate, 
may be, by the eternal Nemefis, funk down into the 
fatal caverns of mount iEtna, Strombolo, or Vefu- 
vius i there to, incorporate with burning rivers, and 
lakes of fulphur, and other minerals, to hear per- 
petually the frightful cracking, rumbling* and loud 
thunder of thofe infernal vaults, to be, without 
intermiffion, annoyed with the eternal ftench of 
melted mines, whofe poignant vapours equally kill 
it, and revive it every moment, that it may be con- 
fined to an endlefs circle of miferies : To feel the 
excruciating torments, which no tongue can utter-; 

2 Whilft 


whilft the inceflant rapid motion of thofe exalted 
and moft violent fires, with which it is imbodied by 
the decree of Fate, rob it of the very poflibility of the 
leaft eafy thought, or quiet minute r and at the fame 
time rack it with infinite tortures. 

Think not, my dear Phyfician, that it is impof- 
fible a feparate fpirit can thus be fenfible of pain. 
There is no fuch thing as a feparate fpirit, but God, 
who made all bodies, and therefore was before them. 
The angels themfelves are partly corporeal ; fo are 
the devils. Do not believe then, that mortal man, 
who is in a middle {late between thefe two, fhall by 
dying gain a privilege above the moft illuftrious 
fpirits in heaven. As foon as death has diflodged 
us from one body ; nature, providence, or fate, pro- 
vides us another, according to our qualities, incli- 
nations, and merits. We may as well by me- 
tempfychofis become the fpirit or foul of a flaming 
fulphur-mine, or at leaft of fome part of it, as of an 
horfe, an eagle, or a dove : For fuch, for aught we 
know, may be the difpofitions of divine wifdom, 
juftice, and omnipotence. 

By the very fame reafon another foul may be 
tranfported to the open, happy fkies, where it may 
either range in boundlefs, free, and ferene tracts of 
blifs, or be infranchifed in the corporations of the 
ftars, to dwell in palaces of azure, topazes, and dia- 
monds ; to polTefs provinces more rich than in Pe- 
ru or Guinea, where the rufticks plow up gold, 
more beautiful and pleafant than the famous fields of 
ThefTaly. God knows what will become of us af- 
ter our diflblution : But the ignorance of this one 
truth occafions all my melancholy. 

Death is not formidable of itfelf, nor all the do- 
lorous circumftances that precede it : It is only what 
comes after that raifes all my terror. Were I to melt 
away in lingering agues and confumptions; or to be 
fooner pofted off" in high-wrought fevers, pleurifies, 
or peftilence : Or, if it were my fate to die by piitol, 
fword, or poifon, or any other kind of flow or fudden 
death, allotted me from chance ornature, providence 



or fate : Should Heaven con fu me me in a trice by 
lightning; or thii globe, with equal fwiftnefs, bury 
me in iome furpriiing earthquake : It would be all 
one to Mahmut, were it not for the after-claps, to 
which I am a ifranger. I tremble at the hidden and 
unfearchable force of nature: I dread the irreverfible 
unknown decrees of fate, the facred methods of eter- 
nal defliny, the laws and order of the other world, in 
billetting the troops of human fouls, that go to n- 
ter there, after this life's campaign is finiihed. 

Once in a cold and frofty evening, as I was tra- 
velling over a bleak, wide plain, and felt the pene- 
trating blafts of North-eaft winds, with chilling 
fleet, which fell upon me from the clouds ; my fpi- 
rits alfo tired with tedious journies, and my anxious 
.thoughts being wholly taken up about a refting- 
place that night, and how to avoid the aflault of 
robbers, with a thoufand other perils, threatening 
a Granger on the road ; at length, I chanced to 
think of the untried and remote voyage I muft one 
day make to another world. It chilled my blood 
to imagine the difconfolate, naked circumftances of 
a feparate foul, which, for aught I knew, might be 
bewildered, loft, and forced to wander up and down, 
through untracked waftes of mifty, frozen air, 
where" the inhofpitable element affords no guides, 
.no caravanfera's, to comfortiefs poor, ftraggling 
ghofts ; unlefs tbey would accept a lodging in feme 
cloud, the ciftern and chariot of rain, hail, or fnow ; 
there to incorporate with the unwelcome meteors, 
and be whirled round the globe, or elfe precipitated 
down to earth again in mowers ; from thence per- 
haps to be exhaled by the fun, and mixed with em- 
bryo's of lightning, fiery dragons, ignes fatui, or 
other bodies hourlv flaming in the welkin, and thus 
to circulate in endlefs transmigrations. Who knows 
the circumftances of departed fouls, or laws of a 
feparate ftate ? Let him declare what ufage we mail 
find in that invifible and dark recefs from life : He 
fliall be then efteemed more than Apollo by the 
penlive Mahmut. Not the old Delphic oracle could 



receive greater reverence from the inquisitive world; 
nor Mecca now from devout MufTiilman pilgrims ; 
or Medina Talnabi, where the Prophet refts in 
peace ; than fuch a one fhould have from me, who^ 
would with unfeigned truth difcover, how we fhali 
be difpofed of when we die. But I am cloyed and 
naufeated with dull romances of the priefis and 

My friend, let thou and I learn to improve the 
joys of the prefent life, and not by damned miftakes 
deprive ourfelves of double happinefs. But let us 
fo comport ourfelves, that our tranfmigration may 
be but from the pleafures of earth to thofe of heaven;, 
from one paradife to another. 

Tari?, 6 tli of &e ift .Vocìi, 
of the Year 1667. 

To Kerker Haflan, Bafìa. 

THE bleflings of God, and his Prophet, chear 
thy heart, as thou haft exhilarated mine byr 
thy lait letter, wherein thou encouraged me with 
the hopes of being removed from this difagreable 
poft to one more delightful and happy, even to a 
I weet country retirement, either in Arabia, or any- 
other part cf the Grand Signior's dominions, which 
is the very mark of all my wifhes. 

I have a natural averiion for great and populous 
cities. They feem to be fo many magnificent fe- 
pulchrcs of the living, where men arefbut up, im- 
prifoned, and buried from all commerce with the 
elements ; or they are like hofpitals, or peft-houfes, 
where people crowd, infeci:, and {link one another 
to death with a thoufand pollutions. They hive 
together like bees, and build their apartments in 
darknefs, Like nefts of pifmires, they trudge up 




and down all the fummerjof their youth, to heap up 
treafures, that they may fpend the winter of their 
old-age in loathfome eaie, and benumbed ftupidity - y 
not daring to venture out of the purlieu of their 
naity, fmoicy habitations, and yet they are ready to 
be ftifled with their own breath. 

It is with pleafure I contemplate the face of the 
infant earth, before it was deformed by the unne- 
ceilary arts of the carpenter, fmith, and mafon : 
When men had no other houfes but what they 
made themfelves, every one for his family, of the 
branches and boughs of trees, interwoven with 
oziers, reeds, and ivy ; and covered thick with 
leaves and grafs to fhelter them from wind, hail, 
rain, and other injuries of weather; or, perhaps, 
fome had found out a den, or a cave, in the earth, 
or the hollow of a rock, for a fanctuary infuch cafes, 
where they repofed in perfect tranquillity, without 
fear of fnares or violence, without apprehenfion of 
robbers, or any tragical furprife. They went out 
and in, flept and waked, laboured and reited in 
fafety and quiet. Avarice, envy, andinjuflice had 
not as yet corrupted the minds of mortals. The 
earth brought forth corn, herbage, and fruits with- 
out the hufbandman's or gardener's labour : All 
places abounded with plenty of innocent refrefh- 
ments, and thofe primitive inhabitants coveted no 
more. The cattle and bees afforded them milk and 
honey, and the fountain- waters were generous as 
wine. This globe was a complete paradile, and no 
miftaken zeal had taught men religioufly to invade 
one another's rights, and in a pious fury to murder 
their neighbours, in hopes of meriting heaven here- 
after. There was no fuch thing as bigotry or fu- 
perftition to be found among any of the human race. 
The law of nature was in univerfal force : Every 
man purfued the dictates of reafon, without heark- 
ening after religious fophiftry and facred fables. 

But when once the lucre of gold had corrupted 
men's manners and they, not contented with the 
riches and fweets, which they daily cropped from the 

fur face 


furface of the earth, had found a way to defcend in- 
to her bowels 5 flung with an infatiabl-e delire of hid- 
den treafures ; then began injuftice, oppreffion, and 
cruelty to take place. Men made inclofures to 
themfelves, and incompafied a certain portion of 
land with hedges, ditches, and pales, to fence them 
from the invafions of others ; for the guilt of their 
own vicious inclinations filled them with fears, and 
made them jealous of one another. They built 
themfelves ftrong-holds, fbrtreiles, caftles, and 
cities : And, their terrors increafing with their cri- 
minal pofTeflions, they perfuaded themfelves, that 
the very elements would prove their enemies, if 
not pacified by bribes and prefents. Hence fprang 
the nrft invention of altars and facrifices, and from 
thefe vain panicle fears of mortals the gods derived 
their pedigree. For one built a temple to the fun, 
another to the moon, a third to Jupiter, Mars, or 
the reft of the planets. Some adored the fire, others 
the water or wind. Every one fet up to himfelf 
fuch a god as he fancied would be propitious to him. 
Thus, error being equally propagated with human 
nature, they created an infinite rabble of imaginary 
deities, paying to thofe idols the fupreme and in- 
communicable honours due only to the eternal 
EfTence, Father and Source of all things. 

Befides, they lived in intolerable pride and lux- 
ury, in conftant wars and ftrife, in darknefs, igno- 
rance, and confufion. I fpeak of fuch as dwelt in 
cities, and were incorporated together by one com- 
mon intereft. For ft ill there remained fome who 
obeyed the original laws of nature, and the traditi- 
ons cf primitive humanity. 

Thefe dwelt in tents, or other moveable habita- 
tions, as our countrymen the Arabs do at this day > 
with the Tartars, their brethren. They fcorned to 
faften themfelves to the earth, by poflèffing any part 
of it in propriety : Every field and wood, hill and 
valley, river and well, were with them in common. 
They ftraggled whither they pleafed. 



This is the life (o emulated by me, or, inftead of 
that, at leaft a retirement from cities, that I may- 
breathe out my Jail hours in a free air, remote from 
the ftifling company and contagion of mortals. I 
long to range at liberty through unfrequented paths 
of defart ground, over wild, unpolifhed heaths; 
from thence infenfibly to fall into fome venerable 
folitude, where the dry mofTy banks of trees in 
fi lent characters proclaim the antiquity of the place ; 
and gentle whifpers ofthe wind initrua: the -methods 
of Platonick love ; infpire ftrange paffions, which 
we never felt before; and teach us to converfe with 
fatyrs, nymphs, and other harmiefs tenants of the 
fhades. -How great is the pleafure to be thus fur- 
rjrifed with fome harmonious, warbling dream, or 
iilent, foft, deep, cryftal river ! 1 o fpeak incog- 
nito with Dryads, Hamadryads, and the fporting 
ecchoes; to lie diflolved in loofe, yet innocent enjoy- 
ments, on the banks ; to talk with nature, with 
immortal fubftances, and with eternity itfelf ! Oh 
God ! Is not this ravifhing ? 

It is difficult to fay, whether it would be pleafant 
or painful to return from thefe inerrable parades of 
the foul to our domeftick felicities, though even in 
a rural life, which I acknowledge to be the happinefs 
on earth. Yet there to trace the herds and flocks, 
to walk amidft the high-grown corn and grafs, to 
pluck the bearded ears of barley, to let our eyes roll 
over the various figures of the wind-blown wheat 
-and millet, our noies to fuck the fragrant airs of 
marjoram, thyme, oranges, and lemons, with innu- 
merable fpices ; our ears to hear the inimitable me- 
lody of birds, and every fenfe to be tranfported, 
{hatched away, and loft in facred extafies ; muft 
needs be ranked among the higheft kind of earthly 

But to defcend from thofe enjoyments to the 
meaneft and moft common diversions of a country 
life ; methinks, there is fomething peculiarly 
charming in the very elegant fituation of the houfes; 
whether it be on the brow of an hill, or the bottom 



of a valley ; in the midltof a wood, or the opening 
of an heath ; on the fide of a road, or in fome obfcure 
corner of the country. It is agreeable, when walk- 
ing in the morning, to hear the bleating of fheep, 
lowing ot oxen, (creaming, quaking, and crowing 
ofgeefe, ducks, cocks, and other home-bred ani- 
mals ; to hear the louder winds, threatening to tear 
up trees by the roots, demolifh houfes, and remove 
thè globe kfelf, if polTible, from off its bafis. This ' 
would be better mufick to me, for a change, than a 
concert of dulcimers, theorbo's, timbrels, and viols. 
Human nature delights in variety, and there is a 
certain audacious curiofity in the foul, which loves 
to venture on extremes. The rain, the dirt, the 
ftink of hogs, camels, dromedaries, and other ne- 
cefTary rural beafrs, would pleafe me better than the 
conflant tedious eafe, or fulfome fweets of court or 
city. I fweat whilft thus fhut up within thefe 
walls : It cloys me to be daily walking in a circle ; 
trample away over the fame ground, in a vaft laby- 
rinth of houfes, where my fenfes meet no new re- 
frefhing objects, but my ears are hourly naufeated, 
vexed, and tired, with the rattling din of coaches, 
■carts, artificers, and the harfh voices of fuch as fell 
flefh, fifh, and other things about the ftreets. My 
eyes can find no grateful profpeóts, but dafhed with 
furly, rugged looks of proud and wealthy Infidels; 
or with the 11 y fatyrick fmiles of well-fhaped people, 
who condemn me for my bandy legs and crooked 

In a word, my dear BafTa, I long to feel the gen- 
tle breefes of the Eaft, purifying my foul, and 
cleaniing it from fo many pollutions. I languish for 
the fight of turbants and crefcents, for the devout 
call of the muezins on the lofty minarets : I die in 
contemplation of facred falls and feafts, the no6tur- 
n al joys ofR.amezan, the revels and chearful illu- 
minations ofBeiram, and the imperial dunalma's. 
When I think of thefe things, my foul burfts forth 
into fervent invocations, and every faculty cries, 
Alla, Alia, 



May that divine and immortal One hear my pray- 
ers, and grant me the happinefs to fee the face of 
noble Kerker Hafian, in an horizon pure and free 
from the defilement of Infidels. 

Paiis, 14th of the ad Moon, 
of the Year 1667. 


To Iibuf, his Coufin, a Merchant, at 

I Sent a difpatch to thee in the year 1664, where- 
in, among other things, I recommended our cou^ 
fin Solyman to thy friendfhip and patronage, if ever 
he fhould travel to Aftracan, as I adviied him : 
For thou knoweft he has a roaming genius, without 
the wit to improve himfelf in any foreign country, 
unlefs he has a friend to guide and take care of him : 
And then it will be a difficult talk to make him fen- 
fible where he is. He will always think he is with- 
in the verge of the Grand Signior's hunt, where he 
may domineer at large, under the notion of a re- 
tainer to the Sultan. He is a ftrange- humoured 
fellow. I know not what to make of him. He is 
changeable as Proteus or a Cameleon : Sometimes 
religioufly dull and phlegmatick, likeaHadgi; at 
another feafon, ycu mail feel his pulfe beating to 
the tune of youthful pride, ambition, lufr, and other 
vices. To-day he would be a Dervife, Santone, 
or any thing that bears the form of holinefs : But, 
when he has flept upon it, the vain young convert 
would return again to the world, and be a foldier, 
courtier, profeflbr of the law, or any thing that 
makes a figure in the eyes of men. So unwelcome 
are the rigid paths of virtue to a foul not well efta- 
blifhed in its principles. 



And yet our coufin Solyman, as I am told, is the 
Muflulman of the Muffulmans, as to his exterior. 
With hands devoutly laid to bread, and humbled 
touch of the earth, he gives the falem to his friends 
and neighbours : Soft, as the fighs of mutes in the 
Seraglio : Humble, as the Grecian chapman, walk- 
ing through the ftreets, is forced to imitate, when 
he is hectored by the rampart janifaries. 

But, oh, my coufin Ifouf, it is grief to fay, that 
Solyman, partaker of our blood, is bafe, ungrateful, 
and perfidious : That he mould be thus unnatural, 
ftudying the utmoft period of our life, inftead of 
honeft, juft, and noble prefents, to prolong it. 

I had reafon, long ago, to compare him to Pon- 
tius Pilate ; and, iff had gone on, and fcummed off 
all the mod enormous crimes of human race, it 
w T ould be too little to exprefs his enmity againft 
Mahmut, the kindeft uncle, and the trueft friend, 
that ever poor Solyman could boaft of. 

But he is degenerate, and that is too little, with- 
out the mournful fighs of thee and me, to increafe 
the aggravation of his crime. 

In fine, he is our kinfman, and let us fhew mer- 
cy. He has been perfidious to me, and I would re- 
trench the words I have fpoken in his difgrace. If 
he comes to Aftracan, do as thou pleafeft : But 
have an eye over thine own affairs. Take not So- 
lyman for an angel. He is itili but a turbant-ma- 
Jcer ; a frolickfome blade ; and a merchant that 
makes a very fmall figure. 

Coufin Ifouf, forget not the maxims thou haft 
learned in thy travels ; be true to thy friends and 
thyfelf. Honour the memory of thy deceafed pa- 
rents. Love all men that are good. And be not 
remifs in praying for the foul of thy deceafed uncle, 
whenever God mail call for it. 

Paris, 26th of the ad Moon, 
of the Year 1667. 


The end of the Sixth Volume 

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